Behavioural/Social learning perspective Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Behavioural/Social learning perspective Deck (125):
1

_____ Behaviour: behaviour that can be observed, predicted, and eventually controlled by scientists

Overt

2

According to Watson, _______ was only a variant of observable behaviour

Thinking

3

According to Watson, _______ was the end product of our habit systems

Personality

4

Skinner branded his type of behaviourism as _______ Behaviourism

Radical

5

Major Assumption: The experiences of life change us, and they do so in ways that are ______ and _________ ways

lawful; predictable

6

Behaviourism Background
• Ivan Pavlov: ________ Conditioning
• Edward Thorndike: Law of _______
• John Watson: Put behaviourism on the map and “Personality = ______ systems”
B F Skinner: _______ Behaviourism

Classical; Effect; Habit; Radical

7

What is an unconditioned response?

an automatic response to a unconditioned stimulus (the dog salivating)

8

What is an unconditioned stimuli?

A stimuli that automatically elicits a response (The food for the dog)

9

What is positive reinforcement?

reinforcement where something is added to increase behaviour (money, food)

10

What is negative reinforcement?

When an aversive stimuli is taken away

11

What is extinction?

When there is no reward for a behaviour

12

What is punishment?

When an aversive consequence is added

13

The CS-CR response can be ___________

generalised

14

A state in which people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled. This is known as?

Learned Helplessness

15

Operant conditioning relies of the ________ principle

pleasure

16

Generalisation: When we generalise the conditioned response to other situations. If the generalised response is met with __________, the behaviour is likely to persist

reinforcement

17

__________: Knowing which behaviours will likely be rewarded and which behaviours which will not be rewarded

Discrimination

18

_______: Rewarding behaviour which approximates the desired behaviour to try and achieve the desired goal

Shaping

19

Who invented Expectancy Value Theory?

Rotter

20

_________ _______ Theory: Importance of beliefs about what the results of your behaviour are likely to be

Expectancy Value

21

Different people, given _________ conditions for learning, learn different things

identical

22

Some people responds predictably to __________, others less so, and some respond unpredictably

reinforcement

23

What are the two components from in Rotter's formula for behavioural potential

Expectancy and Reinforcement Value

24

Some people see a direct and strong connection between their behaviour and the ________ and ___________ received

reward; punishment

25

People differ in the extent to which they think there is a cause-and-effect link between their behaviour and reinforcers: _____ of ________

Locus of Control

26

If a student fails an exam and blames her lecturer, according to Rotter, she has an ________ ______ of _________

External Locus of Control

27

If a therapist slowly exposes an individual to an anxiety provoking stimuli, gradually over time the individual might come to not be some anxiety stricken about the stimuli. What theory technique is this? and is it operant or classic?

Systematic Desensitisation; Classical

28

If an ABA therapist does not reward and ignores hitting, what technique is this?

Extinction

29

Rewarding approximations is called _________

Shaping

30

Bandura emphasises the ______ nature of learning

social

31

Whilst we strive to achieve for external rewards, we are also directed by the goals we establish for ourselves. This is referred to as _____-_________

self-regulation

32

Self-____________: Behaviour, external, and internal factors all affect each other

determinism

33

Self-_______: the belief in your ability to perform a particular behaviour to achieve a certain outcome

Efficacy

34

If an individual believes that they are competent in achieving a certain behaviour, they are high in ____-_______

Self-Efficacy

35

Measures of self-______ need to be associated with particular tasks

efficacy

36

Bandura differentiates between outcome expectations and _________ expectations

efficacy

37

Are outcome expectations or efficacy expectations better predictors of behaviour?

Efficacy Expectations

38

Bandura identified three factors which are important for modelling to occur:
1. Characteristics of the _____
2. ______ of the observer
3. Consequences

model; Attributes; Consequences

39

_________ __________: Replacing the old association of feared stimulus and response by a new association of stimulus

Systematic Desensitisation

40

Systematic desensitisation is a ________ conditioning technique

classical

41

Self-_______ can improve treatment outcomes

efficacy

42

Self-efficacy can be increased via:
1. Enactive ________ experience
2. Vicarious experiences
3. ______ Persuasion
4. Physiological and Affective states

mastery; Verbal

43

_____ _______ throughout the treatment process: situation arranged by the therapist that guarantees successful experiences to client

Guided mastery

44

Before any positive change can be made, therapists need to establish _________ behaviour

baseline

45

What are two ways of assessment of observable behaviours?

Direct observation; Self-Monitoring

46

_______ behavioural observation: situations are created in which the problem behaviour is likely to occur

Analogue

47

Strengths
• _________ Validity: Conditioning and aspects of social learning are well supported
• ______ _______: ALL concepts have to be testable since they need to be observed
• ________ value: Useful therapeutic implications (behaviour modification is also cost effective)
• ________ Value: Behaviourists helped to shape psychology as an empirical science and Bandura and Rotter have stimulated much research
• Comprehensiveness: This is more debatable, but more recent attempts have highlighted the importance of the environment in explaining situational variations

Empirical; Testable concepts; Applied; Heuristic

48

Weaknesses
• __________: what about free will? What about the role of genetic factors? Humans are more complex than animals
• _______ Value: Not addressing the source of the issue
• Description: good for simple behaviours; much improved with the work of Bandura and Rotter
• _________: Conditioning principles are too simplistic to account for complex human personality

Explanation; Applied; Parsimony

49

Watson believed that only the __________ was reasonable subject matter for a science

observable

50

______ behaviour: Behaviour that can be observed

Overt

51

According to Watson, _________ was just a variant of subvocal verbal behaviour

thinking

52

_________, according to Watson, was the end product of out habit systems

Personality

53

In his ________ behaviourism, Skinner accepted the existence of thoughts and inner experiences but challenged the extent to which we are able to _______ the inner causes of our own behaviour

radical; observe

54

Skinner and ______ both believed that people simply do not know the reason for many of their behaviours, although they often think they do

Freud

55

Skinner described __________ as “the by-product of operant reinforcement”

happiness

56

Traditional Behaviorists do not deny the influence of _________ by downplay its importance compared to the relative power of conditioning

genetics

57

_________ conditioning begins with an existing stimulus-response association

Classical

58

The process of building one conditioned S-R associated on another is called _____-_______ conditioning

second-order

59

For a new S-R association to _______, the unconditioned and conditioned stimuli must be paired occasionally or otherwise reinforced

persist

60

The gradual disappearance of the conditioned S-R association is called ________

extinction

61

__________’s proposed the law of effect: that behaviours are more likely to be repeated if they lead to satisfying consequences and less likely to be repeated if they lead to unsatisfying consequences

Thorndike

62

Thorndike’s proposed the law of _______: that behaviours are more likely to be repeated if they lead to satisfying consequences and less likely to be repeated if they lead to unsatisfying consequences

effect

63

Who proposed the law of effect?

Thorndike

64

What is the law of effect?

behaviours are more likely to be repeated if they lead to satisfying consequences and less likely to be repeated if they lead to unsatisfying consequences

65

Operant conditioning begins with the _________ that the organism emits spontaneously

behaviours

66

________ conditioning concerns the effect certain kinds of consequences have on the frequency of behaviour

Operant

67

• ___________: A consequence that increases the frequency of behaviour that precedes it
• __________: A consequence that decreases the frequency of behaviour that precedes it

Reinforcement; Punishment

68

Punishment has several limitations:
1. Punishment does not teach ___________ behaviours, only decrease undesired ones
2. To be effective, punishment must be delivered immediately and consistently
3. Punishment can lead to _________ side effects

appropriate; negative

69

___________: successive approximations of the desired behaviour are reinforced

Shaping

70

The concept of __________ – __________ – behaviour interactions: not only does the environment influence our behaviour, but that behaviour then determines the kind of environment we find ourselves in, which can then influence behaviour and so on.

behaviour; environment

71

Julian ________ is one of the most influential social learning theorists

Rotter

72

Rotter explains that the _______ ________ is the likelihood that a given behaviour will occur in a particular situation

behavioural potential

73

What is the formula to predict behavioural potential according to Rotter?

Expectancy, and Reinforcement Value

74

1. ________: participation is determined by your expectancy of what you think the outcome will be

Expectancy

75

We use ___________ expectancies (beliefs we hold about how often our actions typically lead to reinforcement of punishment) for new situations that we encounter

generalized

76

Rotter explained that each of us can be placed on a continuum of ____ of ________

locus of control

77

________ ______: the degree to which we prefer one reinforce over another

Reinforcement Value

78

_______ __________: external and internal determinants of behaviour are part of a system of interacting influences that affect not only behaviour but the various parts of the system as well

Reciprocal Determinism

79

Bandura argues that most behaviour is performed in the absence of external reinforcements and punishments. Our daily actions are controlled by ___-________

self-regulation

80

In addition to operant and classical conditioning, we have __________ (vicarious) ________: we can learn by observing or reading or just hearing about other people’s actions

observational learning

81

Bandura states that “behaviour learned through __________ need not be performed”

observation

82

Behaviorists explain some ___________ problems in terms of reinforcing the wrong behaviour

psychological

83

Behaviour theorists also point out that a lack of appropriate behaviours is often the result of too little __________

reinforcement

84

________ __________: Old association between the feared stimulus and the fear response is replaced with a new association between the stimulus and relaxation

Systematic Desensitisation

85

_______ therapy: the therapist tries to rid the client of undesirable behaviours by pairing aversive images with the behaviours

Aversion

86

___________: uses imaging of somatic nervous system processes to educate clients on how they are going

Biofeedback

87

___-_______: one’s belief of being able to complete a behaviour

Self-Efficacy

88

_________ Expectation: the extent to which people believe actions will lead to a certain outcome

Outcome

89

_________ Expectation: the extent to which people believe they can perform the actions that will bring about the particular outcome

Efficacy

90

Bandar states that _______ expectations are better predictors of behaviour than _________ expectations

Efficacy; outcome

91

Bandura identifies four sources that create efficacy expectations:
1. _____ ________ Experiences: These are successful attempts to achieve the outcome in the past
2. Vicarious Experiences: Seeing others perform behaviours without adverse effects can lead us to believe that we can do it too
3. Verbal Persuasion
4. Physiological and Affective states

Enactive Mastery

92

What are the four sources that create efficacy expectations?

Enactive Mastery Experiences; Vicarious Experiences; Verbal Persuasion; Phsyiological and Affective states

93

_______ ________ Experiences: These are successful attempts to achieve the outcome in the past

Enactive Mastery

94

________ Experiences: Seeing others perform behaviours without adverse effects can lead us to believe that we can do it too

Vicarious

95

____ _______: the treatment is broken down into small steps that can be accomplished with only a slight increase in the client’s effort

Guided Mastery

96

______ _______ is set up in a way which almost guarantees client success

`Guided Mastery

97

_________ therapists do not spend much time trying to discover the initial cause of a client’s problem

Behaviour

98

________ _________ observation: the therapist creates a situation that resembles the real-world setting in which the problem behaviour is likely to occur

Analogue behavioural

99

Strengths
1. Solid foundation in __________ research (especially observable data)
2. The theoretical background also underlies the development of useful __________ techniques
3. Treatments use baseline data and objective criteria for determining success or failure

empirical; therapeutic

100

Criticisms
1. It is a too narrow description of human _________
2. Human beings are far more complex than the laboratory animals used in behavioural research
3. ___________ can downplay the meaning behind psychological ill-being

personality; Behaviorism

101

Children and adults acquire and maintain gender-appropriate behaviours largely through _______ ________ and ___________ learning

operant conditioning; observational

102

For _________ ________ of gender-stereotyping to occur, the child must first notice a certain behaviour is performed more often by one gender the another

observational learning

103

• ________: refers to independence, assertiveness, and control, which is roughly similar to masculinity
• _________: refers to attachment, cooperation, and interpersonal connection, which is similar to femininity

Agency; Communion

104

The _________ model rejects the assumption that masculinity-femininity is a continuum and proposes that they are independent traits

androgyny

105

• __________ Model: masculine men and feminine women are the most well adjusted
• __________ Model: being masculine is the key to mental health
• __________ Model: people whose behavioural repertoires lack either masculine or feminine behaviours are ill-prepared to respond to many situations they encounter

Congruence; Masculinity; Androgyny

106

__________ characteristics in a partner are desired for three reasons:
1. Feminine traits are more affectionate, compassionate, and sensitive to others needs
2. Androgynous people are more aware of and better able to express romantic feelings
3. They communicate well and are better able to resolve problems

Feminine

107

___________ communion: an individual extremely places the needs of others over their own

Unmitigated

108

Agency is roughly related to __________

Masculinity

109

Communion is related to ___________

Femininity

110

Unmitigated _________ is related to ill-being and psychological discomfort

communion

111

People high in unmitigated ________ often act narcissistically, focusing on themselves to the exclusion of others

agency

112

Bandura states that observational learning and performance of aggression consist of 4 interrelated processes:
1. ________
2. ________
3. _______
4. _______

Attend; Remember; Enact; Expect

113

• We must first _______ to the significant features of the model’s behaviour
• People must then ________ information about the model’s behaviour
• People must then ______ what they have seen
• The final step is to _______ that the aggressive act will lead to rewards and not to punishment

attend; remember; enact; expect

114

Learned __________ can be inappropriately generalized into other situations

helplessness

115

Depression sometimes develops in a manner similar to the way research participants acquire ______ _________

learned helplessness

116

The neurotransmitter _________ appears to play a role in the development of both learned helplessness and depression

serotonin

117

People suffering from psychological disorders tend to be more _________ than ________ locus of control

external; internal

118

__________ students receive higher grades and better teacher evaluations than __________

Internal; externals

119

I________ are better in health than e________

internals; externals

120

After a new stimulus-response association is classically conditioned, it must be paired with the old stimulus occasionally or reinforced to avoid ________

Extinction

121

Importance of beliefs about what the results of your behaviour are likely to be: is postulated by which theory?

Expectancy value theory

122

What is self efficacy?

Bandure proposed that it is the belief in your ability to perform a particular behaviour to achieve a certain outcome

123

Bandar developed one global scale of self-efficacy which he suggested should always be used to assess a construct, is this true or false?

False

124

Tina told her friend that the reason she failed her exam was because her unit convenor does not like her. Tina is demonstrating an _________ locus of control

external

125

Behaviour therapists explain successful _________ _________ in terms of replacing old stimulus-response bonds with new ones. Social-cognitive therapists maintain that _______ ________ change efficacy expectations, leading to behaviour change

systematic desensitisation; mastery experiences