Flashcards in Week 7 Psychoanalytic Approach Deck (169):
______: a disorder that consists of a variety of physical symptoms
Patients would describe previously hidden material that seemed related to the causes and cure of their hysterical symptoms in Freud's technique known as ___ _______
The division of human personality into three components: the conscious, preconscious, and the unconscious is known as what?
What are the 3 components of the topographic model?
Conscious, Preconscious, and Unconscieous
The ______ contains the thoughts you are currently aware of
The ________ is the large body of information that can readily be brought into the conscious
The _________ is the vast majority of thoughts that you have but have no immediate access to
According to Freud the _________ is responsible for much of your everyday behaviour
The Structural Model consists of the __, __, and __
id; ego; superego
At birth there is only one personality structure , the __?
The __ is the selfish part of you, concerned with only satisfying your personal desires
What two components do the id use?
Wishful fulfilment; and the pleasure principle
Is the id completely unconscious or conscious?
The ___ is based on the reality principle: the primary job of the ego is to satisfy id impulses, but considers the realities of the world
Your ego moves freely between the unconscious, preconscious and conscious? True or False?
The ____ represents society’s and parents values and standards
The primary weapon that the superego brings and utilises is _____
____ ____: an ever-present feeling of shame and guilt-for failing to reach standards no human can meet
Freud stated that human behaviour is motivated by strong internal forces called _____
Freud Identified _____ (the life or sexual instinct) and _____ (and the death or aggressive behaviour) as the two major Treibes
______ Anxiety: the vague feelings of anxiety cause by sensations that are unacceptable unconscious thoughts
The ____ uses defence mechanisms to deal with unwanted thoughts and desires
The active effort by the ego to push threatening material out of consciousness or to keep that material from ever reaching consciousness is known as ?
The ego channels threatening unconscious impulses into socially acceptable action, this is known as ?
_______ involves channelling our impulses to non-threatening objects
We use the defence mechanisms of _____ when we refuse to accept that certain facts exist
We use _____ ______ when we hide from a threatening unconscious idea or urge by acting in a manner opposite to the unconscious desire
Attributing an unconscious impulse to other people instead of ourselves is known as ?
Children that have a difficult time moving through a particular psychosexual stage become ______, or the tying up of psychic energy
Name the psychosexual stages
Oral; Anal; Phallic; Latency; Genital
When does the Oedipus complex form?
The Phallic stage
What defines mechanism might be used when children identify with their same sex parent?
______ content (what the dreamer sees and remembers) ______ content (what is really being said)
Manifest ; Latent
______ Tests: present test takes with ambiguous stimuli and asks them to respond by identifying objects, telling a story, or perhaps drawing a picture
The primary goal of _________ is to bring crucial unconscious material into consciousness where it can be examined in a more rational manner
______ Tests present individuals with ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots or vague pictures
The ______ inkblot test, Thematic Apperception Test and Human Figure Drawing tests are all types of what tests?
Objects and people in our dreams are thought to be _____
Men make up ____of the characters in women’s dreams and ____ of the characters in men’s dreams
50% ; 65%
The unconscious conflict surfaces in the dream at night but is expressed in the form of ______ during the day
____ sleep is sometimes called paradoxical sleep
________ is the cornerstone of psychoanalysis
The defence mechanism of ________ is used to associated themselves with powerful and successful individuals
______ consists of disavowing certain facts, from failure to see reality to distorting one’s memory
The only defence mechanism that children have is _____
______: tension reduction (to release this tension or anxiety)
__________ Theory: hypnotised people experience a division of their consciousness; one part becomes an altered state, the other stays fully aware
What are the three variables and one trait that predict how responsive an individual is to hypnotic suggestion?
Expectancy, motivation, attitude; Absorption
Who was the first member of the psychoanalytic group to break with Freud?
What was the name of Alfred Adler's new psychological branch?
According to Adler, Striving for superiority begins with feelings of _________
A high level of _______ can result in an inferiority complex: a belief that an individual has that they are vastly inferior to everyone else
What were the two negative parental behaviours Adler identified?
Pampering and Neglect
Adler believed that Birth _____ influenced personality development
Carl Jung Identified the ________ ________ : consists of thoughts and images that are difficult to bring into awareness
The collective unconscious is made up of ______ images
Primordial images are collective referred to as ______
The ____ is the feminine side of the male; the _____ is the masculine side of the female
What is the name of Jung's unconscious that essentially contains our negativity ?
What has Eriksons approach to personality been called?
According to Erikson, the principle function of the ego is to establish and maintain a sense of _______
According to Horney, _______ are trapped in a self defeating interpersonal style
What were the two main contributions to psychoanalysis bu Karen Horney?
Neurosis and Feminine Psychology
Neurotics are fighting off feelings of ________ and _______
insecurity ; inadequacy
Horney stated that Neurotic personality types were nurtured by disturbed interpersonal relationships during __________
What were the three interaction styles of Neurotics identified by Horney?
Moving toward people; Moving against people; Moving away from people
Moving ______ people
Moving ______ people;
Moving away from people; are the three interaction styles of neutrotics identified by Horney
According to Freud, religious behaviour represents a form of ______
Jung stated that each of us inherit a God _______ in our collective unconscious
• ___________ mind
• ___________ Mind: material here cannot be brought to immediate awareness
Conscious ; Preconscious; Unconscious
1. __ : the only personality structure present at birth operates on the pleasure principle, “I want something and I want it now!”
2. ____: mediates the demands of the id and superego, works of the reality principle
3. _______: formed around 5 years of age. Representation of society’s and parental standards and values (Moral)
The _________ enforces rules, but could produce anxiety as it always strives for perfection
• Two subsystems of superego : ego ______: rules of behaviour and standards of excellence that the superego attempts to adhere to
• __________: constitutes rules about what is bad behaviour
Moral Anxiety: is caused by the _________ being too powerful
Freud suggested that everyone is born with a certain amount of ______ energy
________: term used to describe psychic energy used to satisfy the need
_________: Energy used to precent a cathexis which is deem undesirable and would result in anxiety
________ (eros): life or sexual instinct which drives most of our behaviour (all actions concerned with pleasure)
________: Death instinct
Freud believed that we all had an unconscious desire to die and return to the earth, and the socially appropriate way to express this was _________
An important function of the ____ is to employ defense mechanisms
________ Anxiety: occurs when unconscious thought are close to becoming conscious
__________: The most important: the ego’s efforts to put material out of conscious awareness
____________: The most productive: Channelling impulses into socially acceptable actions
____________: Also channels impulses, but no social rewards, phobias were seen as symbolic displacements
_________: Denial of reality (will not accept certain facts exist)
_______ ________: Acting in an opposite what to threatening impulse (the reaction is exaggerated)
____________: Dealing with the threatening impulse in an unemotional manner
__________: when we repress the source of anxiety and see them in others
______ _________: Extreme form of avoiding places and situations which arouse anxiety
___________: Providing a logical reason which reduces anxiety
__________: Returning to an earlier stage in life
__________ _________: Anxiety is converted into psychosomatic symptoms
Freud believed that personality formed during the first 5 – 6 years of life divided into ____________ stages
Some individuals can become ________ at a particular psychosexual stage
• 0-1 years: Mouth-weaning: fixation can result in an adult oral personality: ___________ need for oral satisfaction)
• 18 months-3yrs: Fixation can result in an adult anal personality: Anal ________: perfectionism; Anal-_________ = overly generous
• 3-6 years: Boys and girls develop sexual attraction for their opposite-sex parents (________ complex). Which is never fully resolved but just repressed
Boys develop _________ anxiety and girls develop penis envy
Reaction formation leads to ____________ with the same-sex parent: this is important for the development of the superego
• 6-________: No specific erogenous zone; Libido energy is sublimated
• Puberty onwards: ________, mature sexual intimacy (unless large amounts of libido are fixated at earlier stages
_________: forgetting, slips of the tongue, accidents (could they be because an unconscious impulses drives)
It is the goal of ___________ therapy to bring the unconscious so that it can be examined and resolved
____ ________: speaking freely without any distractions to reveal previously hidden material
__________: when a client “forgets” an appointment, is actually a defense mechanism
______ _________: the road to unconscious, we use symbolic substitutes in our dreams to replace the anxiety provoking stimulus
Contain ________ content: what the dreamer remembers, and l________ content, what the dream is really about
In Freud’s model, hypnosis is when the _____ is suspended leaving a direct link to the unconscious, but there are other views
_____________ theory: whilst part of the mind enters the ‘trance’ like state, there is always a hidden observer
Not all individuals are equally responsive to hypnosis. If you score high on __________ you would likely be responsive to hypnosis
What are some strengths of Freud's theory?
• Description: good descriptions of origins of personality and the complexity of personality structure
• Explanation: some concepts, such as defense mechanisms offer explanations of behaviour
• Empirical Validity and Testable Concepts: some research supports certain ideas, such as anal and oral personality types, dream contents, and defense mechanisms
• Comprehensiveness: Yes!
• Heuristic Value: definitely, stimulated a lot of research
• Applied Value: Freud’s work led to the treatment of other people with mental disorders in a more humane way
What are some criticism?
• Parsimony: is our behaviour really motivated by two instincts? Too parsimonious
• Testable Concepts: lack of scientific supports, not very operationalised concepts, environment overlooked, overemphasis of sex, sexist, time-consuming and expensive.
_________ theory emphasises the role of the ego; some focus on the operation of the ego, some focus on how the ego interacts with, and is affected by, other individuals/society/culture
Neoanalytic personality assessment involves personal _________
Psyche = _________
_______: driving force of the psyche, but unlike Freud’s theory, can be directed to numerous things to meet needs
Principle of equivalence: fixed amount of ________
Principle of _______: hard to achieve balance across the elements of the psyche
Principle of opposites: polarities of human __________
__________ unconscious: inherited images and experiences that result from common experiences to all humans. It also includes universal symbols which are responsible for responding in certain ways to things; these are called ___________
Some Jungian Archetypes
• ________: Mask, helps us deal with other people in socially appropriate ways
• ________: Repressed material within the personal unconscious and images of evil from the collective unconscious and is expressed in anger, pain
• A______: feminine qualities of the male and is the prototype for female relationships (helps to understand women)
• A______: masculine qualities of the female and is the prototype for relationships with males
• Self: potential we have to achieve our unique individuality
Persona; Shadow; anima; animus
The Meyers-Briggs Test Indicator was developed to assess the personality types described by ______
Who De-emphasised sexual motivation and emphasised: Behaviour motivated by striving for superiority; importance of social interest; importance of parents ?
______ ______ believed much of adult behaviour is based on efforts to overcome basic _______ acquired in childhood (fear of being alone and helpless in a hostile world; fear leads to neurotic needs; minimised by being raised with trust love, love, warmth, and tolerance)
Karen Horney; anxiety
Horney rejected that penis envy was wrong and developed ______ envy: men try and compensate for their ability to carry children and give birth by seeking to achieve in other areas
Neurotic individuals try and avoid experiences, which may cause anxiety by adopting a particular style of dealing with people (Moving _______ people; Moving ______ people; moving ______ from people).
toward; against; away
If the superego is to powerful, someone might experience ______ ________
What are the two sub levels of the superego?
Ego ideal; and Conscience
what is the most productive defence mechanism?
When does the phallic stage occur? what age?
According to Freud, children in the ______ stage are 3-6 years old
What is the major event during the phallic stage?
The Oedipus complex
What defence mechanism leads to identification with the opposite sex parent during the Oedipus complex?
Anxiety that is converted into psychosomatic symptoms is a part of which defence mechanism?
The R_______ type
The A________ type
The G_________ type
The S________ U_______ type
are the 4 Adlerian Personality Types
Ruling; Avoiding; Getting; Socially Useful
Out of the Alderian personality types, which was the healthly one?
The Socially Useful Type
The ____ measures needs and motives and as such fits into the dispositional perspective
The TAT draws heavily on the psychoanalytic concept of the _________
The TAT is always an (nomothetic/ideographic)
Can the TAT reveal underlying attitudes of optimism or pessimism?
Yes it can.
According to Freud, which is the only personality structure present at birth?
What are the two subsystems of the superego?
The ego ideal; the conscience
What is the energy being used to satisfy a need called?
What is the name of the psychic energy that the ego would use to stop the id's desire?
A problem with ______'s psychosexual stages is that there is no room for growth or change later on
According to Freud, an individual that has a _____ personality tends to be dependent on others,
Which psychosexual fixation is associated with being messy and disorganised? and what is the opposite?
Anal expulsive; Anal retentive
Libido energy is sublimated during which psychosexual stage?
The Latency period (6-puberty)
Forgetting; Freudian slips; and accidents are also known as ________
What happens in counter transference?
The therapist displaces their own feelings onto the client
Research has found that each of us rely on some defence mechanisms more than others, this is known as our ________ _______
Defensive style may also have implications for how people react to common sources of ______
_______ jokes - the ones that provide insight into the unconscious of the joke tell as well as the person who laughs
If you had the ability to become highly involved in sensory and imaginative stimuli you wold likely be high in ________
are variables in an individual's susceptibility to hypnosis
The polarities of human experience is known as the principle of _______
Hard to achieve balance across the elements of the psyche is known as the principle of __________
______ feminine qualities of the male and prototype for female relationships
_______ masculine qualities of the female and prototype for male relationships
The _____ was developed to assess the personality types described by Jung
What is the single motivating force described by Adler?
striving for superiority
Who should have higher feelings of inferiority according to Adler, the first or second born?
the first born, as they are dethroned from their pampered existence
What are the four Adlerian personality types?
The ruling type; the getting type; the socially useful type; and the avoiding type
According to Erikson, the principle function of the ____ is to establish and maintain a sense of identity
According to Horney, what is the key characteristic of neurotics?
That they are trapped in a self-defeating interpersonal style