Week 7 Psychoanalytic Approach Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 7 Psychoanalytic Approach Deck (169):
1

______: a disorder that consists of a variety of physical symptoms

Hysteria

2

Patients would describe previously hidden material that seemed related to the causes and cure of their hysterical symptoms in Freud's technique known as ___ _______

Free Association

3

The division of human personality into three components: the conscious, preconscious, and the unconscious is known as what?

Topographic Model:

4

What are the 3 components of the topographic model?

Conscious, Preconscious, and Unconscieous

5

The ______ contains the thoughts you are currently aware of

Conscious

6

The ________ is the large body of information that can readily be brought into the conscious

Preconscious

7

The _________ is the vast majority of thoughts that you have but have no immediate access to

Unconsciousness

8

According to Freud the _________ is responsible for much of your everyday behaviour

unconscious

9

The Structural Model consists of the __, __, and __

id; ego; superego

10

At birth there is only one personality structure , the __?

id

11

The __ is the selfish part of you, concerned with only satisfying your personal desires

id

12

What two components do the id use?

Wishful fulfilment; and the pleasure principle

13

Is the id completely unconscious or conscious?

unconscious

14

The ___ is based on the reality principle: the primary job of the ego is to satisfy id impulses, but considers the realities of the world

ego

15

Your ego moves freely between the unconscious, preconscious and conscious? True or False?

True

16

The ____ represents society’s and parents values and standards

Superego

17

The primary weapon that the superego brings and utilises is _____

guilt

18

____ ____: an ever-present feeling of shame and guilt-for failing to reach standards no human can meet

Moral Anxiety

19

Freud stated that human behaviour is motivated by strong internal forces called _____

Treibe

20

Freud Identified _____ (the life or sexual instinct) and _____ (and the death or aggressive behaviour) as the two major Treibes

Libido; Thanatos

21

______ Anxiety: the vague feelings of anxiety cause by sensations that are unacceptable unconscious thoughts

Neurotic

22

The ____ uses defence mechanisms to deal with unwanted thoughts and desires

ego

23

The active effort by the ego to push threatening material out of consciousness or to keep that material from ever reaching consciousness is known as ?

Repression

24

The ego channels threatening unconscious impulses into socially acceptable action, this is known as ?

Sublimation

25

_______ involves channelling our impulses to non-threatening objects

Displacement

26

We use the defence mechanisms of _____ when we refuse to accept that certain facts exist

denial

27

We use _____ ______ when we hide from a threatening unconscious idea or urge by acting in a manner opposite to the unconscious desire

reaction formation

28

Attributing an unconscious impulse to other people instead of ourselves is known as ?

Projection

29

Children that have a difficult time moving through a particular psychosexual stage become ______, or the tying up of psychic energy

fixated

30

Name the psychosexual stages

Oral; Anal; Phallic; Latency; Genital

31

When does the Oedipus complex form?

The Phallic stage

32

What defines mechanism might be used when children identify with their same sex parent?

Reaction Formation

33

______ content (what the dreamer sees and remembers) ______ content (what is really being said)

Manifest ; Latent

34

______ Tests: present test takes with ambiguous stimuli and asks them to respond by identifying objects, telling a story, or perhaps drawing a picture

Projective

35

The primary goal of _________ is to bring crucial unconscious material into consciousness where it can be examined in a more rational manner

Psychoanalysis

36

______ Tests present individuals with ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots or vague pictures

Projective

37

The ______ inkblot test, Thematic Apperception Test and Human Figure Drawing tests are all types of what tests?

Rorshach; Projective

38

Objects and people in our dreams are thought to be _____

symbols

39

Men make up ____of the characters in women’s dreams and ____ of the characters in men’s dreams

50% ; 65%

40

The unconscious conflict surfaces in the dream at night but is expressed in the form of ______ during the day

anxiety

41

____ sleep is sometimes called paradoxical sleep

REM

42

________ is the cornerstone of psychoanalysis

Repression

43

The defence mechanism of ________ is used to associated themselves with powerful and successful individuals

Identification

44

______ consists of disavowing certain facts, from failure to see reality to distorting one’s memory

Denial

45

The only defence mechanism that children have is _____

denial

46

______: tension reduction (to release this tension or anxiety)

Catharsis

47

__________ Theory: hypnotised people experience a division of their consciousness; one part becomes an altered state, the other stays fully aware

Neodissociation

48

What are the three variables and one trait that predict how responsive an individual is to hypnotic suggestion?

Expectancy, motivation, attitude; Absorption

49

Who was the first member of the psychoanalytic group to break with Freud?

Alfred Adler

50

What was the name of Alfred Adler's new psychological branch?

Individual Psychology

51

According to Adler, Striving for superiority begins with feelings of _________

inferiority

52

A high level of _______ can result in an inferiority complex: a belief that an individual has that they are vastly inferior to everyone else

inferiority

53

What were the two negative parental behaviours Adler identified?

Pampering and Neglect

54

Adler believed that Birth _____ influenced personality development

Order

55

Carl Jung Identified the ________ ________ : consists of thoughts and images that are difficult to bring into awareness

Collective Unconscious

56

The collective unconscious is made up of ______ images

primordial

57

Primordial images are collective referred to as ______

archetypes

58

The ____ is the feminine side of the male; the _____ is the masculine side of the female

anima; animus

59

What is the name of Jung's unconscious that essentially contains our negativity ?

The Shadow

60

What has Eriksons approach to personality been called?

Ego psychology

61

According to Erikson, the principle function of the ego is to establish and maintain a sense of _______

identity

62

According to Horney, _______ are trapped in a self defeating interpersonal style

Neurotics

63

What were the two main contributions to psychoanalysis bu Karen Horney?

Neurosis and Feminine Psychology

64

Neurotics are fighting off feelings of ________ and _______

insecurity ; inadequacy

65

Horney stated that Neurotic personality types were nurtured by disturbed interpersonal relationships during __________

Childhood

66

What were the three interaction styles of Neurotics identified by Horney?

Moving toward people; Moving against people; Moving away from people

67

Moving ______ people
Moving ______ people;
Moving away from people; are the three interaction styles of neutrotics identified by Horney

Toward; Against

68

According to Freud, religious behaviour represents a form of ______

neurosis

69

Jung stated that each of us inherit a God _______ in our collective unconscious

archtype

70

Topographical Model
• __________Thought
• ___________ mind
• ___________ Mind: material here cannot be brought to immediate awareness

Conscious ; Preconscious; Unconscious

71

1. __ : the only personality structure present at birth operates on the pleasure principle, “I want something and I want it now!”

Id

72

2. ____: mediates the demands of the id and superego, works of the reality principle

Ego

73

3. _______: formed around 5 years of age. Representation of society’s and parental standards and values (Moral)

Superego

74

The _________ enforces rules, but could produce anxiety as it always strives for perfection

superego

75

• Two subsystems of superego : ego ______: rules of behaviour and standards of excellence that the superego attempts to adhere to
• __________: constitutes rules about what is bad behaviour

ideal; Conscience

76

Moral Anxiety: is caused by the _________ being too powerful

superego

77

Freud suggested that everyone is born with a certain amount of ______ energy

psychic

78

________: term used to describe psychic energy used to satisfy the need

Cathexis

79

_________: Energy used to precent a cathexis which is deem undesirable and would result in anxiety

Anticathexis

80

________ (eros): life or sexual instinct which drives most of our behaviour (all actions concerned with pleasure)

Libido

81

________: Death instinct

Thanatos

82

Freud believed that we all had an unconscious desire to die and return to the earth, and the socially appropriate way to express this was _________

Aggression

83

An important function of the ____ is to employ defense mechanisms

ego

84

________ Anxiety: occurs when unconscious thought are close to becoming conscious

Neurotic

85

__________: The most important: the ego’s efforts to put material out of conscious awareness

Repression

86

____________: The most productive: Channelling impulses into socially acceptable actions

Sublimation

87

____________: Also channels impulses, but no social rewards, phobias were seen as symbolic displacements

Displacement

88

_________: Denial of reality (will not accept certain facts exist)

Denial

89

_______ ________: Acting in an opposite what to threatening impulse (the reaction is exaggerated)

Reaction Formation

90

____________: Dealing with the threatening impulse in an unemotional manner

Intellectualisation

91

__________: when we repress the source of anxiety and see them in others

Projection

92

______ _________: Extreme form of avoiding places and situations which arouse anxiety

Phobic Avoidance

93

___________: Providing a logical reason which reduces anxiety

Rationalisation

94

__________: Returning to an earlier stage in life

Regression

95

__________ _________: Anxiety is converted into psychosomatic symptoms

Conversion Reaction

96

Freud believed that personality formed during the first 5 – 6 years of life divided into ____________ stages

psychosexual

97

Some individuals can become ________ at a particular psychosexual stage

Fixated

98

Oral
• 0-1 years: Mouth-weaning: fixation can result in an adult oral personality: ___________ need for oral satisfaction)

dependency,

99

Anal
• 18 months-3yrs: Fixation can result in an adult anal personality: Anal ________: perfectionism; Anal-_________ = overly generous

retentive; expulsive

100

Phallic
• 3-6 years: Boys and girls develop sexual attraction for their opposite-sex parents (________ complex). Which is never fully resolved but just repressed

Oedipus

101

Boys develop _________ anxiety and girls develop penis envy

castration

102

Reaction formation leads to ____________ with the same-sex parent: this is important for the development of the superego

identification

103

Latency Period
• 6-________: No specific erogenous zone; Libido energy is sublimated

puberty

104

Genital
• Puberty onwards: ________, mature sexual intimacy (unless large amounts of libido are fixated at earlier stages

Genitals

105

_________: forgetting, slips of the tongue, accidents (could they be because an unconscious impulses drives)

Parapraxes

106

It is the goal of ___________ therapy to bring the unconscious so that it can be examined and resolved

psychoanalysis

107

____ ________: speaking freely without any distractions to reveal previously hidden material

Free Association

108

__________: when a client “forgets” an appointment, is actually a defense mechanism

Resistance

109

______ _________: the road to unconscious, we use symbolic substitutes in our dreams to replace the anxiety provoking stimulus

Dream Interpretation

110

Contain ________ content: what the dreamer remembers, and l________ content, what the dream is really about

manifest; Latent

111

In Freud’s model, hypnosis is when the _____ is suspended leaving a direct link to the unconscious, but there are other views

ego

112

_____________ theory: whilst part of the mind enters the ‘trance’ like state, there is always a hidden observer

Neodissociation

113

Not all individuals are equally responsive to hypnosis. If you score high on __________ you would likely be responsive to hypnosis

absorption

114

What are some strengths of Freud's theory?

• Description: good descriptions of origins of personality and the complexity of personality structure
• Explanation: some concepts, such as defense mechanisms offer explanations of behaviour
• Empirical Validity and Testable Concepts: some research supports certain ideas, such as anal and oral personality types, dream contents, and defense mechanisms
• Comprehensiveness: Yes!
• Heuristic Value: definitely, stimulated a lot of research
• Applied Value: Freud’s work led to the treatment of other people with mental disorders in a more humane way

115

What are some criticism?

• Parsimony: is our behaviour really motivated by two instincts? Too parsimonious
• Testable Concepts: lack of scientific supports, not very operationalised concepts, environment overlooked, overemphasis of sex, sexist, time-consuming and expensive.

116

_________ theory emphasises the role of the ego; some focus on the operation of the ego, some focus on how the ego interacts with, and is affected by, other individuals/society/culture

Neoanalytic

117

Neoanalytic personality assessment involves personal _________

narratives

118

Psyche = _________

personality

119

_______: driving force of the psyche, but unlike Freud’s theory, can be directed to numerous things to meet needs

Libido

120

Principle of equivalence: fixed amount of ________

energy

121

Principle of _______: hard to achieve balance across the elements of the psyche

entropy

122

Principle of opposites: polarities of human __________

experience

123

__________ unconscious: inherited images and experiences that result from common experiences to all humans. It also includes universal symbols which are responsible for responding in certain ways to things; these are called ___________

Collective; Archetypes

124

Some Jungian Archetypes
• ________: Mask, helps us deal with other people in socially appropriate ways
• ________: Repressed material within the personal unconscious and images of evil from the collective unconscious and is expressed in anger, pain
• A______: feminine qualities of the male and is the prototype for female relationships (helps to understand women)
• A______: masculine qualities of the female and is the prototype for relationships with males
• Self: potential we have to achieve our unique individuality

Persona; Shadow; anima; animus

125

The Meyers-Briggs Test Indicator was developed to assess the personality types described by ______

Jung

126

Who De-emphasised sexual motivation and emphasised: Behaviour motivated by striving for superiority; importance of social interest; importance of parents ?

Alfred Adler

127

______ ______ believed much of adult behaviour is based on efforts to overcome basic _______ acquired in childhood (fear of being alone and helpless in a hostile world; fear leads to neurotic needs; minimised by being raised with trust love, love, warmth, and tolerance)

Karen Horney; anxiety

128

Horney rejected that penis envy was wrong and developed ______ envy: men try and compensate for their ability to carry children and give birth by seeking to achieve in other areas

womb

129

Neurotic individuals try and avoid experiences, which may cause anxiety by adopting a particular style of dealing with people (Moving _______ people; Moving ______ people; moving ______ from people).

toward; against; away

130

If the superego is to powerful, someone might experience ______ ________

Moral anxiety

131

What are the two sub levels of the superego?

Ego ideal; and Conscience

132

what is the most productive defence mechanism?

Sublimation

133

When does the phallic stage occur? what age?

3-6 years

134

According to Freud, children in the ______ stage are 3-6 years old

phallic

135

What is the major event during the phallic stage?

The Oedipus complex

136

What defence mechanism leads to identification with the opposite sex parent during the Oedipus complex?

Reaction formation

137

Anxiety that is converted into psychosomatic symptoms is a part of which defence mechanism?

Conversion reaction

138

The R_______ type
The A________ type
The G_________ type
The S________ U_______ type
are the 4 Adlerian Personality Types

Ruling; Avoiding; Getting; Socially Useful

139

Out of the Alderian personality types, which was the healthly one?

The Socially Useful Type

140

The ____ measures needs and motives and as such fits into the dispositional perspective

TAT

141

The TAT draws heavily on the psychoanalytic concept of the _________

unconscious

142

The TAT is always an (nomothetic/ideographic)

Ideographic

143

Can the TAT reveal underlying attitudes of optimism or pessimism?

Yes it can.

144

According to Freud, which is the only personality structure present at birth?

The Id

145

What are the two subsystems of the superego?

The ego ideal; the conscience

146

What is the energy being used to satisfy a need called?

Cathexis

147

What is the name of the psychic energy that the ego would use to stop the id's desire?

Anticathexis

148

A problem with ______'s psychosexual stages is that there is no room for growth or change later on

Freud's

149

According to Freud, an individual that has a _____ personality tends to be dependent on others,

oral

150

Which psychosexual fixation is associated with being messy and disorganised? and what is the opposite?

Anal expulsive; Anal retentive

151

Libido energy is sublimated during which psychosexual stage?

The Latency period (6-puberty)

152

Forgetting; Freudian slips; and accidents are also known as ________

parapraxes

153

What happens in counter transference?

The therapist displaces their own feelings onto the client

154

Research has found that each of us rely on some defence mechanisms more than others, this is known as our ________ _______

defensive style

155

Defensive style may also have implications for how people react to common sources of ______

stress

156

_______ jokes - the ones that provide insight into the unconscious of the joke tell as well as the person who laughs

tendentious jokes

157

If you had the ability to become highly involved in sensory and imaginative stimuli you wold likely be high in ________

Absorption

158

A_______
M_______
E________
Ab________

are variables in an individual's susceptibility to hypnosis

attitude;
Motivation;
Expectancy
absorption

159

The polarities of human experience is known as the principle of _______

opposites

160

Hard to achieve balance across the elements of the psyche is known as the principle of __________

Entropy

161

______ feminine qualities of the male and prototype for female relationships

anima

162

_______ masculine qualities of the female and prototype for male relationships

animus

163

The _____ was developed to assess the personality types described by Jung

MBTI

164

What is the single motivating force described by Adler?

striving for superiority

165

Who should have higher feelings of inferiority according to Adler, the first or second born?

the first born, as they are dethroned from their pampered existence

166

What are the four Adlerian personality types?

The ruling type; the getting type; the socially useful type; and the avoiding type

167

According to Erikson, the principle function of the ____ is to establish and maintain a sense of identity

ego

168

According to Horney, what is the key characteristic of neurotics?

That they are trapped in a self-defeating interpersonal style

169

Although Freud stated neurosis in terms of fixate energy and unconscious battles; Horney pointed to disturbed interpersonal relationships during __________

childhood