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Flashcards in Week 9 Biological Approach Deck (135):
1

Few psychologists today would deny that __________ is at least partly the result of inherited biological differences

Personality

2

The growing acceptance of a biological influence on personality is partly a reflection of the declining influence of ___________

behaviourism

3

Eysenck employed _____ analysis to identify the basic number of what he called types or supertraits

factor

4

Eysenck employed factor analysis to identify the basic number of what he called types or _______

supertraits

5

__________-__________; ___________; and ___________ are the three overarching personality dimensions of Eysenck's Theory

Extraversion-Introversion; Neuroticism; Psychotisism

6

The basic structure for the Eysenck hierarchy is the specific ______ _____ (specific behaviours)

response level

7

The second level for the Eysenck hierarchy is _______ Response

Habitual

8

The third level for the Eysenck hierarchy is the ____ Level

Trait

9

The last level for the Eysenck hierarchy is called the _______ level

supertrait

10

What are the four levels of Eysenck's Hierarchy?

The Basic Response Level; The Habitual Level; The Trait Level; the Supertrait Level

11

People who score high in emotions could be high in what personality dimension according to Eysenck?

Neuroticism

12

People who are egocentric, aggressive, and impersonal might score high on which personality dimension?

Psychoticism

13

Eysenck originally proposed that extraverts and introverts had different levels of _____ ______ arousal

cerebral cortex

14

____verts are more sensitive to stimulation than ____verts

Intro; extra

15

According to Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, each human brain has a Behavioural _______ System (BAS) , and a Behavioural _______ System (BIS)

Approach; Inhibition

16

People with a highly active (BAS/BIS) are intensely motivated to seek out and achieve pleasurable goals?

BAS

17

People with highly active (BAS/BIS) tend to be more apprehensive than others?

BIS

18

People with high BIS or BAS are more likely to experience anxiety?

BIS

19

Most researchers see a connection between the (BAS/BIS) and extraversion and a connection between the (BAS/BIS) and neuroticism

BAS; BIS

20

________ are general patterns of behaviour and mood that can be expressed in many different ways and that, depending of ones experience, develop into different personality traits

Temperaments

21

Is it hard to classify temperaments?

Yes,

22

What are the three basic temperament dimensions?

Emotionality; Activity; Sociability

23

(Activity; Emotionality; Sociability) refers to intensity of emotional reactions?

Emotionality

24

(Activity; Emotionality; Sociability) refers to a persons general level of energy

Activity

25

(Activity; Emotionality; Sociability) relates to a general tendency to affiliate and interact with others

Sociability

26

What temperament type would likely to have a quick temper?

Emotionality

27

Adult personalities are influenced by inherited temperaments and the _________

environment

28

(Inhibited/Uninhibited) children are controlled and gentle

inhibited

29

(Inhibited/Uninhibited) are uncontrolled and non-gentle

uninhibited

30

(Inhibited/Uninhibited) children are more vulnerable to anxiety to novelty?

Inhibited

31

Negative evaluation by other people is a common source of ________

anxiety

32

According to ________ theory, physical features evolve because they help the species survive the challenges of the environment and reproduce new members of the species

evolution

33

One of the primary causes of anxiety is social _________

exclusion

34

_____ child; ______ child; and _____ to _____ up child are the three basic temperament dimensions of elementary school aged children

Easy; Difficult; Slow to warm up child

35

Electroencephalographs or _____ are used to measure electrical activity in different parts of the brain

EEG's

36

what type of EEG wave is particularly useful for the measurement of emotion and personality?

Alpha waves

37

The right hemisphere is associated with (positivity/Negativism); while the left hemisphere is associated with ?

Negativism;positivity

38

The _____-_____ question is one of the most enduring issues in psychology

Nature-Nurture

39

For ______ Reasons, it is not possible to manipulate people’s genes and observe who they become

Ethical

40

The similarity of ______ and Children is an obvious source of inherited personality

Parents

41

The most popular procedure for separating the role of genetics from the role of environment is the ___-____ Method

Twin-Study

42

Because of the racial tension, psychologists have been working on a "_____-____" intelligence test

“culture-free”

43

Considering the biological approach, should monozygotic or dyzygotic twins be more similar in personality?

Monozygotic

44

The genetic influence of some personality traits may not be seen unless a unique combination of more than one gene is inherited is called the __________ effect

Nonadditive

45

_______ has one of the strongest genetic components of any personality variable studied

Extraversion

46

____verted students are more sensitive to stimulation
____verts are understimulated

Intro; Extra

47

Are extroverts of introverts found to be more happy?

Extraverts

48

According to Evolutionary psychologists, male and females search for a mate to _______, and this is partly based on concerns for parental investment

reproduce

49

From the evolutionary perspective, Men serve best by ________ as frequently as possible

Reproducing

50

Men prefer partners that are _______ and physically attractive

younger

51

________ Selection: the competition among members of one gender for mating access to the best members of the other gender

Intrasexual

52

Does psychoticism have a polar opposite?

No

53

Major general ideas to the biological perspective
1. That many personality characteristics are ___________ determined
2. That human behaviour produced is by a complex biological system (eg. Hormones, NT’s)
3. That our behavioural tendencies and to some extent our personality derive from our evolutionary history

genetically; biological

54

Major general ideas to the ________ perspective
1. That many personality characteristics are genetically determined
2. That human behaviour produced is by a complex biological system (eg. Hormones, NT’s)
3. That our behavioural tendencies and to some extent our personality derive from our ___________ history

biological ; evolutionary

55

Behavioural genetics examines...

relationships between genes, environments and behaviour

56

Genetic heritability in the extent to which any _________ is the result of genes

phenotype

57

Similarities and ______ of people that are or are not related is the predominate research

genes

58

_________: are your genetic structure
__________: are observable characteristics; like height but also personality

Genotypes; Phenotypes

59

_______ _________ is assessed by degree of variability between parents and child

Genetic Heritability

60

• Additive genetic variance – total gene variance inherited from parents
• Dominant genetic variance – dominant genes are expressed and recessive genes are not
• Espistatic genetic variance – genes _______. Some genes we inherit determine how others will be expressed or suppressed (epistasis)

Dominant; interact

61

• _________ genetic variance – total gene variance inherited from parents
• Dominant genetic variance – dominant genes are expressed and recessive genes are not
• _______ genetic variance – genes interact. Some genes we inherit determine how others will be expressed or suppressed (epistasis)

Additive; Espistatic

62

• Additive genetic variance – total gene variance inherited from parents
• Dominant genetic variance – dominant genes are expressed and recessive genes are not
• Espistatic genetic variance – genes interact. Some genes we inherit determine how others will be ________ or _________ (________)

expressed; suppressed; epistasis

63

A narrow genetic variation is attributed to _________ genetic variance

additive

64

what are the 3 ways we assess genetic variance?

Family studies; Twin studies; Adoption studies

65

Heritability estimate for a twin study are expressed as a _________: h2 = 2 (rmz – rdz)

percentage

66

What is the heritability estimate formula?

h2 = 2 (rmz – rdz)

67

Riemann found the following heritability estimates for the Big Five (N(__%), C(72%), E(56%), A(46%), O(28%))

80; 72

68

Did Eyesneck use factor analysis?

yes

69

What were Eyesenk's three super trait? and which one was added later?

Extraversion-introversion; Neuroticism; and then later psychoticism

70

what are the polar opposites of neurotic?

Emotional stability-Emotional instability

71

What are the 4 levels in Eyesenk's Hierarchical model?

Specific respone level; Habitual response level; Trait level; Supertrait level

72

Eyesenck:
• Basic assumption is that human brain has _________ and ________ neural mechanisms
• We seek to maintain a _______ between these two mechanisms

excitatory; inhibitory; balance

73

Balance of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms is regulated by the _____

ARAS

74

What is the ARAS?

Ascending Reticular Activating System

75

Reticulo-_______ circuit (arousal to incoming stimuli) and the reticulo-limbic circuit (arousal to emotional stimuli)

cortical; limbic

76

Reticulo-_______ circuit (arousal to incoming stimuli) and the reticulo-______ circuit (arousal to emotional stimuli)

cortical; limbic

77

Reticulo-cortical circuit (arousal to ________ stimuli) and the reticulo-limbic circuit (arousal to ________ stimuli)

incoming; emotional

78

ARAS that lets in lots of stimulation >(extravert/introvert)
ARAS that cuts brain off from stimulation > (extravert/introvert)

Introvert; Extrovert

79

_________ have been shown to be more sensitive to stimulation

Introverts

80

The resting level of the ARAS is higher for an ________ than an ________

introvert; extrovert

81

Extroversion according to Eysenck is focussed by the reticulo-______ circuit

cortical

82

Neuroticism according to Eysenck is focussed by the reticule-_______ circuit

limbic

83

ARAS that produces a high level of arousal to emotional stimuli > ________
ARAS that produces a low level of arousal to emotional stimuli > _______ _______

neurotic; emotionally stable

84

What assesses eyesenk's super traits?

the EPQ

85

Gray’s BAS/BIS theory
• Often referred to as _________ _________ theory

reinforcement sensitivity

86

What theory suggests that personality is based on the interaction of two different systems ?

Grays BAS/BIS theory

87

Behavioural _________ System: reflects sensitivity to rewarding stimuli and to seek those rewards

Approach

88

(high BAS reactivity > ___________)(low BAS reactivity > __ _______)

impulsive; not impulsive

89

Behavioural __________ System: Reflects sensitivity to punishment and new stimuli

Inhibition

90

(high BIS > (high/low) trait anxiety; (high/low) BIS > low trait anxiety

High; low

91

Cloninger's Biological Model has _ temperament domains, and _ chararcter domains

4; 3

92

Are temperament domains biological in origin?

Yes

93

Are character domains biological in origin?

No

94

High __________ >antisocial behaviour, aggression, and dominance

testosterone

95

High _______ to stress and anxiety

cortisol

96

(high/low) norepinephrine > anxiety-prone, dependent, sociable,
(high/low) norepinephrine > disinhibition and impulsivity

high; Low

97

Low ____ (enzyme) > aggression, extraversion, sensation seeking

MAO

98

________: role in inhibition of behavioural and emotional impulses

Serotonin

99

(High/Low) serotonin > obsessive worry, depression, irrational anger, chronic pessimism(
High/Low) serotonin > compulsive, obsessively tidy

Low; High

100

Basic assumptions of evolutionary theory:
1. __________ seen in people are present because in the evolutionary history of the human species these __________ were more helpful for survival
2. The more a behaviour helps us ______ and ________ > more likely to occur in subsequent generations

Behaviours x 2; survive and reproduce

101

______ ______ theory: more attracted to strangers who resemble you than who don’t

Genetic similarity

102

_____ and _____ found that women examine gene quality and resource investment; men examine physical attractiveness

Daly and Wilson

103

____ found different results from males and females, and how they differentiate towards sexual jealousy

Buss

104

Both genders do however look for: good sense of ______; pleasing _________; ___________; emotional stability; kindness; lovingness

humor; personality; agreeableness

105

Evolutionary Theory and Aggression
• _________ pre-programmed to serve adaptive purpose
• Inter-male fighting in animals purposive and ________
• Ethological analysis of _________ in animals well established

Aggression; adaptive; aggression

106

What are the three assumptions of the biological approach to personality?

1. Many personality characteristics are genetically determined
2. That human behaviour is produced by complex biological systems
3. Our behavioural tendencies are personality to an extent derive from our evolutionary history

107

Genetic heritability is the extent to which any phenotype is the result of _______

Genes

108

Is personality a phenotype or genotype?

Phenotype

109

There is a higher heritability estimate for ________ compared to neuroticism

extraversion

110

What evidence has shown support for genetic underpinnings to personality?

Twin studies. As MZ twins have higher heritability estimates of shared personality traits compared to DZ twins, when both reared together and reared apart.

111

What does ARAS stand for?

Ascending Reticular Activating System

112

Balance of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms are regulated by the __________ _________ ________ _________

Ascending Reticular Activating System

113

The function of the ______ is to regulate the amount of information or stimulation that goes into the brain via two circuits which manage arousal

ARAS

114

Where is the ARAS located?

The brainstem

115

What are the two circuits of the ARAS and what do they regulate?

The Reticulo-cortical circuit (Arousal to incoming stimuli) Reticul-limbic circuit (Arousal to emotional stimuli)

116

Would most young teen adolescents be high or low on the BAS?

High, as high BAS is impulsivity

117

If I am high on the BIS I have high trait ______

anxiety

118

If I approached someone and asked them on a date, this would activate the (BIS/BAS)?

The behavioural activation system

119

Novely seeking,
Harm avoidance
Reward dependence
Persistence

are all ____________ domains

Temperament

120

Self-directedness
Cooperativeness
Self-transcendance

are all ________ domains

character

121

Are character or temperament domains biological in origin?

Temperament

122

According to Eysenck's model, if someone has an Ascending Reticular Activation System which does not provide a lot of arousal, they would likely be an __________

Extravert

123

Cloninger identified four ___________ and three ________ domains in his model of personality

temperament; character

124

High cortical is associated to severe ________

depression

125

low norepinephrine > disinhibition and _________

impulsively

126

Genes _______ in epistatic genetic variance

Interact

127

What is the significance of the Pedersen et al study?

That MZ twins reared together and apart were higher correlations than DZ reared together and a part

128

Some research found 3 temperaments:

The well-adjusted child
The ________ child
The __________ child

inhibited; undercontrolled

129

What are the three basic temperaments of Buss and Plomins model?

Emotionality; Activity; Sociability

130

What type of anxiety are inhibited temperament children vulnerable to?

Anxiety to Novelty

131

Novelty Seeking = _________
Harm avoidance = _________
Reward dependance = __________
Persistance = ___________

dopamine; serotonin; noradrenalin; noradrenalin

132

Novelty Seeking = _________
Harm avoidance = _________
Reward dependance = __________
Persistance = ___________

dopamine; serotonin; noradrenalin; noradrenalin

133

Novelty Seeking = _________
Harm avoidance = _________
Reward dependance = __________
Persistance = ___________

dopamine; serotonin; noradrenalin; noradrenalin

134

Novelty Seeking = _________
Harm avoidance = _________
Reward dependance = __________
Persistance = ___________

dopamine; serotonin; noradrenalin; noradrenalin

135

Novelty Seeking = _________
Harm avoidance = _________
Reward dependance = __________
Persistance = ___________

dopamine; serotonin; noradrenalin; noradrenalin