Week 6 Trait Perspective Flashcards Preview

Personality and Individual Differences > Week 6 Trait Perspective > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 6 Trait Perspective Deck (196):
1

The _____ Approach identifies relatively stable features of your personality that distinguish you from other individuals

Trait

2

______ systems discovered how many types of people there were, then identified each persons type

Typology

3

The ______ divided people into 4 groups: Sanguine; Melancholic; Choleric; and Phlegmatic

Greeks

4

1. _____ (Happy)
2. Melancholic (Unhappy)
3. _____ (Temperamental)
4. Phlegmatic (Apathetic)

Sanguine; Choleric

5

• _____ (Obese)
• Mesomorphic (Muscular)
• Ectomorphic (Fragile)

Endomorphic

6

Are Typologies still used as accurate identifiers of personality today?

No

7

The Typology approach has been replaced with the ____ Approach

Trait

8

All personality characteristics can be illustrated on the trait ______

continuum

9

1. Trait Psychologists identify characteristics that can be represented along a _______

continuum

10

3. If we were to measure a large number of people and place their scores at appropriate points along the continuum, the scores would be ______ _______

Normally Distributed

11

A _____ is a dimension of personality used to categorize people according to the degree to which they manifest a particular characteristic

Trait

12

What are the two Assumptions of the Trait Approach?

Personality characteristics are relatively stable over time
; Personality Characteristics are also stable across situations

13

Unlike other approaches, no major schools of ______ have evolved from the trait approach to personality

psychotherapy

14

Gordon Allport acknowledged the _______ of the trait concept from the beginning

limitations

15

______ Approach: All people can be described along a single dimension according to their level of a certain trait

Nomothetic

16

Allport referred to traits that apply to everyone _____ traits

common

17

______ Approach: Identify the unique combination of traits that best accounts for the personality of a single individual

Idiographic

18

The 5-10 traits that best describe an individual, Allport called the ____ Traits

Central

19

Allport originally proposed that occasionally a ____ trait will dominate a personality

single

20

The advantage of using the ________ approach is that the person, not the researcher, determines what traits to examine

idiographic

21

The Thematic Apperception Test was created by which Trait Psychologist?

Henry Murray

22

Henry Murray called his approach ______

Personology

23

Henry Murray identified _____ as the basic elements of personality

needs

24

Murray described _______ needs as "those with readiness to respond in a certain way under certain conditions"

Psychological

25

Murray created a list of __ psychogenic needs

27

26

Murray recognised that whether a need is activated depends on the situation, which he called the;

Press

27

What was the statistical technique employed in the work of Raymond Cattell?

Factor Analysis

28

Cattell called the basic traits that make up the human personality ____ Traits

Source

29

The research undertaken by Donald _____ roughly identified five factors of social adaptability

Fiske

30

• The big 5 are:
1. ________
2. Extraversion
3. Openness
4. _________
5. Conscientiousness

Neuroticism; Agreeableness

31

• The big 5 are:
1. Neuroticism
2. ________
3. Openness
4. Agreeableness
5. ____________

Extraversion; Conscientiousness;

32

The trait of _____: Places people along a continuum according to their emotional stability and personal adjustment

Neuroticism

33

People who frequently experience emotional distress and wide swings in emotions will score high on measures of _______

Neuroticism

34

Individuals low in ______ tend to be calm, well adjusted, and not prone to extreme emotional reactions

Neuroticism

35

The Personality factor of ________ places extreme extroverts at one end and extreme introverts at the other

Extraversion

36

_______ are very sociable people who also tend to be energetic, optimistic, friendly, and assertive

Extraverts

37

______ refers to openness to experience rather than openness in an interpersonal sense

Openness

38

People high in _______ have active imagination, a willingness to consider new ideas, divergent thinking, and intellectual curiosity

Openness

39

Some people high in Openness are also called _______

Intellects

40

People high in ________ are helpful, trusting, and sympathetic

agreeableness

41

The ________ dimension of the big 5 refers to how controlled and self-disciplined we are

conscientiousness

42

People high in _______ are organised, plan-oriented, and determined

conscientiousness

43

Older adults tend to be higher than younger adults in Conscientiousness and __________

Agreeableness

44

1; Trait Measures Do Not Predict Behaviour Well; and 2 There is Little Evidence for Cross-Cultural Consistency are the two major criticisms for the _____ approach

Trait

45

The way of looking at the relationship among traits, situations, and behaviours is called the ____-by-______ Approach

Person; Situation

46

A personality trait may be a good predictor of behaviour, but psychologists will never know if they don’t measure behaviour _______

reliably

47

As an alternative to one-item measurement, researchers can _______ data

aggregate

48

A trait is more likely to predict a person’s ________ if that trait is important, or central, for the person

behaviour

49

Another argument on the side of personality traits concerns the significance of .30 to ___ correlation coefficients

.40

50

"importance" or statistical results is a _______ judgement

subjective

51

______ tests have been used to make hiring and promotion decisions in the workplace for years

Personality

52

Out of the Big Five personality factors, __________ might be the best predictor of job performance

Conscientiousness

53

The __________ __________ Personality Inventory is a prototypic self-report inventory test

Minnesota Multiphasic

54

The MMPI-2 contains 567 ____/_____ Items

True/False

55

What are common problems with self-report inventories?

Faking, Carelessness and Sabotage, and response tendencies

56

Social ________: the extent to which people present themselves in a favourable light

Desirability

57

Predicating _______ in achievement situations has been a focus of personality research

success

58

The _______ _______ Test is sometimes used to assess the Need for Achievement

Thematic Apperception

59

High need achievers are ______ risk takers

moderate

60

Living in either _________ or _________ cultures can predict need for achievement behaviour

individualistic; collectivist

61

What are the three dimensions of attribution?

Stability, Locus, and Control

62

Achievement _____ provide targets that people aspire to in achievement situations

Goals

63

_____ Goals: are concerned with developing confidence

Mastery

64

_______ Goals: are concerned with demonstrating accomplishment to other

Performance

65

(Mastery/Performance) goals lead to high achievement

Mastery

66

Type _ individuals are strongly motivated to overcome obstacles and are driven to achieve

A

67

Type _ people are relaxed and unhurried

B

68

There are _ major components that make up a type A trait

3

69

______ is a toxic component to Type A behaviour and might be related to coronary problems

Hostility

70

_______ appears to be a widespread social problem

Shyness

71

_____ ______ is anxiety specifically related to social interactions or anticipated social interactions

Social Anxiety

72

Shy people are not necessarily ______

Introverts

73

Evaluation ________: socially anxious people are afraid of what other people think of them

Apprehension

74

Researchers find more shyness in what cultures?

Collectivist

75

We can identify relatively stable ______ in emotions that differ person to person

patterns

76

There are _____ ways our emotions can be examined as relatively stable personal characteristics

three

77

Researchers use ____ _____ to examine the relation among various emotions

factor analysis

78

The behaviour most consistently associated with high positive emotional affect is ____ ____

Social Activity

79

Emotional ________: refers to a person’s outward display of emotions

Expressiveness

80

Expressing our _______ seems to be good for our psychological health

emotions

81

people from _________ cultures are more pessimistic

collectivist

82

Types vs. Traits
Types = you are a single ‘type’ of person
_____ = you can be described as having several traits

Traits

83

Types – Humor
• Choleric – yellow bile – irritable
• __________ – black bile – depressed
• _________ – blood – optimistic
• Phlegmatic – phlegm – calm

Melancholic; Sanguine

84

Distinguishing qualities or characteristics of a person are known as _______

Traits

85

A ______ is a dimension of personality used to categorise someone according to the degree to which they manifest a particular characteristic

Trait

86

What is the key assumption of Trait theory?

That personality characteristics are relatively stable across time and situations (unpredictability then would be the exception not the rule)

87

The ______ approach does not try and predict the behaviour of one person in a given situation

Trait

88

Does the trait approach have a school of psychotherapy?

No, it is the only one that does not.

89

The goals of trait approach are to ________ and ________ behaviour

describe; describe

90

Gordan _______ believed in the individuality and uniqueness of the person and that people have consistent personalities

Allport

91

Personality Measurement: _________ approach identifies common personality traits while the ________ approach identifies personal dispositions

Nomothetic; idiographic

92

Allport: Different Types of Traits
• _______: Single trait which may dominate a personality and heavily influence behaviour
• _______: Those 5 to 10 traits which best describe someone’s personality
• Secondary: Not core to personality, less general applicably (only expressed in certain situations)

Cardinal: Central

93

• Cattell: __ traits
• Costa and McCrae: _ traits
• Eysenck: _ traits
• Murray: __ needs

16, 5, 3, 27

94

________: source of information about personality

Language

95

Raymond _______ identified 4500 words and narrowed down into 171 trait names

Cattell

96

Cattell identified __ personality Factors

16

97

What personality measurement did Cattle use?

the 16PF

98

• Cattell gathered information about personality from different sources:
1. _-data: questionnaire data
2. _-data: Life data (info gathered about a person’s life)
3. _-data: test data (observational accounts)

Q, L, T

99

The Big Five
• 5 ____________ traits well supported by a wide variety of research
• Commonly measured by the ___-PIR

Superordinate; NEO

100

What are the Big 5 according to the NEO?

Openness to Experience; Conscientiousness; Extraversion; Agreeableness; Neuroticism

101

________ __ _________: high scores associated with being imaginative, original, artistic, intellectual

Openness to Experience

102

____________: High scores being associated with being dependable, organised, responsible, also a good predictor of job success

Conscientiousness

103

___________: High scores being associated with energetic, enthusiastic, sociable, and dominant

Extraversion

104

__________: High scores being associated with friendly, cooperative, trusting and warm

Agreeableness

105

___________: High scores being associated with nervous, tense, moody

Neuroticism

106

The big 5 are measured by different ______

Facets

107

_________ facets are:
Anxiety
Angry hostility
Depression
Self-consciousness
Impulsivity
Vulnerability

Neuroticism

108

________ facets are:
Warmth
Gregariousness
Assertiveness
Activity
Excitement seeking
Positive Emotion

Extraversion

109

_________ facets are:
Fantasy
Aesthetics
Feelings
Actions
Ideas
Values

Openness to Experience

110

___________ facets are:
Trust
Straightforwardness
Altruism
Compliance
Modesty
Tender-mindedness

Agreeableness

111

__________ facets are:
Competence
Order
Dutifulness
Achievement striving
Self-Discipline
Deliberation

Conscientious

112

Eysenck’s Big 3 Factors
• Biological model which proposes 3 factors
1. __________
2. ___________
3. Psychoticism: tendency toward psychopathology (which involves impulsivity and cruelty); low conscientiousness and agreeableness

Extraversion; Neuroticism

113

_______ created the EPQ test

Eysenck

114

Assumption: behaviour is driven by an internal state of disequilibrium was made by who?

Henry Murray

115

Basic Elements of personality are _____ in Murray’s model

needs

116

Primary (_________) needs: water, food, air, sex,
Secondary (__________) needs (N=27): nurturance, achievement, affiliation

viscerogenic; psychogenic

117

According to Murray, needs are arranged in a __________ order

hierarchical

118

________ used the Thematic Apperception Test as a test of personality of needs

Murray

119

What are the 3 major needs according to Murray?

Need for Power; Need for Affiliation; Need for Achievement

120

__________ Motivation
• According to Murray, the need to attain high standard and to be driven to succeed on tasks that are set out by society
• Implicit vs. self-attributed achievement motivation

Achievement

121

People high in the need for achievement are _______ risk takers

moderate

122

what are the attributions in achievement motivation?

Stability, Locus, and Control

123

• Are you motivated to succeed to develop a sense of mastery of the material or to demonstrate your accomplishment with others? (This represents ________ and __________ goals?

mastery; performance

124

Mastery and performance goals can be further distinguished by ________ and ________ goals

approach; avoidance

125

Strengths of trait approach
• Description: this approach helps us to _______ personality
• ________ ________: traits can be operationalised
• Parsimony: Could be argued for and against
• Heuristic Value: definitely has produced a lot of research
• Applied Value: very practical; especially across different settings

simplify; Testable Concepts

126

Criticisms
• Testable Concepts: Reliance on self-report inventories raises issues such as faking, acquiescence and social desirability
• _________: does not state origins of personality according to this perspective, only identifies
• __________ Validity: Trait measures do not always predict behaviour well (situation vs. trait controversy) ________ and _________ low correlations.

Explanations; Empirical; personality and behaviour

127

Traits are relatively stable, but ________ fluctuate

emotions

128

• We can however generally identify relatively stable patterns in emotions:

_________
_________
_________

Affectivity; Intensity; Expressiveness

129

________ Affect: excited, enthusiastic, strong, and happy (related to social activity and relationships)

Positive

130

_______ Affect: distressed, fearful, sad, nervous,

Negative

131

_________
• Applies to both positive and negative emotions
• Refers to the strength which people typically experience emotions

Intensity

132

How much a person displays their emotions (non-verbal cues) is known as __________

Expressiveness

133

People are relatively consistent as to whether they view the world in a positive or negative light, this is referred to as __________ __________

dispositional optimism

134

Seligmen's learned optimism ABC format:
• A _______
• B _______ about adversity
• C consequences of such beliefs

adversity; beliefs

135

The key to learning optimism is in the formation of beliefs about ________

adversity

136

Are trait researchers interested in predicting behaviour?

No

137

What do trait researches research? what type of prediction?

How people who score within a certain segment on the trait continuum typically behave

138

The ________ approach assumes that all people can be described along a single continuum according to their level of a certain trait; the ________ approach identifies the unique combination of traits that best accounts for the personality of a single individual

The nomothetic; idiographic

139

According to Allport, on the rare occasion that a single trait will dominate a personality, it should be called a _______ trait

Cardinal

140

What is one advantage of using the idiographic approach?

The participant not the researcher chooses what traits to examine

141

Explain a "press"

The situation which activates a need (the need for order is activated by a messy room)

142

Out of the Big 5 _________ places people along a continuum according to their emotional stability and personal adjustment

Neuroticism

143

Out of the Big 5 _________ places extreme extroverts at one end, and extreme introverts at the other

extroversion

144

Out of the Big 5 people high in _________ have an active imagination, a willingness to consider new ideas, divergent thinking, and intellectual curiosity

openness

145

Out of the Big 5 _________ people are trusting, helpful, and sympathetic

agreeable

146

Out of the Big 5 ___________ refers to how controlled an self-disciplined we are. People high on this are organised, plan oriented, and determined

Conscientiousness

147

People high in ________ tend to become more upset over daily stressors than those low on this dimension and are more vulnerable to bouts of anxiety and depression

Neuroticism

148

People low in ________ tend to be calm, well adjusted, and not prone to extreme emotional reactions

neuroticism

149

_______ are highly sociable people who also tend to be energetic, optimistic, friendly, and assertive

Extroverts

150

Research suggests that we have an explicit and implicit need for _________

achievement

151

What are the three dimensions or attribution?

Locus, Control, Stability

152

A type _ individual is strongly motivated to overcome obstacles and are driven to achieve

A

153

A type _ person is relaxed and unhurried

B

154

________ is the major toxic component of Type A behaviour

Hostility

155

People high in __________ tend to have strong reactions to the small frustrations and inconveniences we all experience

Hostility

156

_______ ________ is anxiety specifically related to social interactions or anticipated social interactions

Social Anxiety

157

People high in ________ _______ expect their social interactions to go poorly and look for evidence that the other person is rejecting them

social anxiety

158

E____________ A____________ is the underlying cause of social anxiety

Evaluation Apprehension

159

Do collectivist or individualistic cultures have more shyness?

Collectivist

160

What are the three personality aspects of emotion?

Affectivity; Intensity; Expressinveness

161

The behaviour most consistently associated with high positive affect is _______ activity

Social

162

High scores on negative affect are generally related to psychological ________

stress

163

Research states that collectivist cultures are more (optimistic/pessimistic); and individualistic cultures are more (optimistic/pessimistic)

Pessimistic; optimistic

164

_________ deal with adverse situations better than _________

Optimists; Pessimists

165

Raymond Cattle came up with the personality measurement of __ personality factors

16

166

L-data is ____ data, (school records, behavioural records)

life

167

What big five factor is related to: imaginative, original, artistic, intellectual

Openness to Experience

168

What big five factor is related to: being dependable, organised, responsible

Conscientiousness

169

What big five factor is related to being warm, friendly, cooperative, and trusting

Agreeableness

170

What big five factor is related to being nervous, tense, moody

Neuroticism

171

A_______
Angry hostility
D________
Self-consciousness
Impulsivity
Vulnerability

are related to _________

Anxiety; Depression; Neuroticism

172

_________
Gregariousness
Assertiveness
A_______
Excitement seeking
Positive emotions

are related to ________

Warmth; activity; Extroversion

173

Fantasy
Aesthetics
________
_______
Ideas
Values

are related to ______ _ __________

Feelings; Actions; Openness to experience

174

Trust
Straightforwardness
________
Compliance
_________
Tender-mindedness

are related to _________

Altruism; Modesty; Agreeableness

175

Competence
O______
Dutifulness
Achievement striving
Self-______
Deliberation

are related to _______

Order; discipline; Conscientiousness

176

In Murray's Model, primary or secondary needs are more important in personality research?

Secondary, because they are psychogenic

177

A person who is excited, enthusiastic, strong, and happy could show high positive _______

Affect

178

A person who is distressed, fearful, and sad shows high negative ________

affect

179

What big 5 factor is high on Assertiveness

Extraversion

180

What big 5 factor is high on Altruism?

Agreeableness

181

What big 5 factor is high on warmth?

Agreeableness

182

What big 5 factor is high on impulsivity ?

Neuroticism

183

What big 5 factor is high on modesty ?

Agreeableness

184

What big 5 factor is high on Depression?

Neuroticism

185

What big 5 factor is high on feelings?

Openness

186

What big 5 factor is high on fantasy ?

Openness

187

What big 5 factor is high on order?

Conscientiousness

188

What big 5 factor is high on self-discipline ?

Conscientiousness

189

What big 5 factor is high on excitement seeking?

Extraversion

190

According to Eysenck, if you were high in impulsivity and cruelty, and low on conscientiousness and agreeableness you would load on the ________ factor

psychoticism

191

Cattle called the basic traits that make up the human personality ______ traits

source

192

Ashton and Lee Identified what 6 trait that could be considered a part of the big 5?

Honesty-Humility

193

Ashton and Lee Identified what 6 trait that could be considered a part of the big 5?

Honesty-Humility

194

What is Q-data?

Questionnaire data; self reports

195

What is L-data?

Life data; info gathered about a personas life; such as school records

196

What is T data?

Test data; Observational accounts