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Flashcards in Week 11 The Cognitive Approach Deck (130):
1

The ______ Approach explains differences in personality as differences in the way people process information

Cognitive

2

What approach explains differences in personality as differences in the way people process information?

The Cognitive Approach

3

An early predecessor to the Cognitive approach can be found in Lewin’s Field Theory of ________

Behaviour

4

Who wrote: The Psychology of Personal Constructs?

George Kelly

5

Who created Personal Construct Theory?

George Kelly

6

Kelly's Man-the-Scientist is part of what theory?

Personal Construct Theory

7

Kelly called the cognitive structures we use to interpret and predict events _______ _______

personal constructs

8

Kelly described constructs as _______ (we classify relevant objects in an either/or fashion; this/that)

bipolar

9

What did Kelly place as the cause of most psychological problems?

Anxiety

10

Cognitive-_______ units or cognitive variables are part of a complex system that links the situations we encounter with our behaviour

Affective

11

How we react to features of the environment depends on our _______ structures

cognitive

12

Each of us possesses a different set of ______ representations

mental

13

___-_____ are cognitive representations of ourselves that we use to organise and process self-relevant information

Self-Schemas

14

What are self-schemas?

They are cognitive representations of ourselves that we use to organise and process self-relevant information

15

can trait concepts such as independence or friendliness be apart of your self-schema?

Yes

16

The self-______ effect is When people are asked if a word describes a celebrity- a question that also requires some thinking- they don’t recall the words a swell as when they are asked about themselves

reference

17

Our behaviour is directed not only by cognitive representations of the way we think of ourselves at the moment, but also by representations of what we might _______

become

18

Possible _____: are cognitive representations of the kind of persona we might become someday

Selves

19

What are the two important functions that Possible Selves provide?

1. They provide incentives for future behaviour
2. They assist us in interpreting the meaning of our behaviour and the events in our lives

20

1. They provide incentives for future behaviour
2. They assist us in interpreting the meaning of our behaviour and the events in our lives are true of ______ ______

Possible Selves

21

Possible Selves are useful in predicting future _______

behaviour

22

Self-Discrepancy Theory Proposes __ different cognitive representations of the self

three

23

How many cognitive representations of self does the self-discrepancy theory propose?

3

24

1. _____ Self: contains all the info you have about the kind of person you are
2. Ideal Self: the mental image of the kind of person you would like to be
3. _____ Self: the self you believe you should be

Actual; Ought

25

1. Actual Self: contains all the info you have about the kind of person you are
2. _____ Self: the mental image of the kind of person you would like to be
3. Ought Self: the self you believe you should be

Ideal

26

Self-Discrepancy Theory Proposes __ different cognitive representations of the self

3

27

How many cognitive representations of self are there proposed by self-discrepancy theory?

3

28

Cognitive therapists identify inappropriate ________ as a cause of mood disorders and self-defeating behaviour

thoughts

29

The goal of most _______ therapies is to help clients reorganise inappropriate thoughts and replace them with more appropriate ones

cognitive

30

• Ellis described it as a A-B-C process:
• Activating Experience
• The Irrational Belief
• Emotional Consequence

Belief ; Consequence

31

Rational Emotive Therapists challenge clients to identify their irrational ______ and see how these beliefs lead them to their faulty conclusions

beliefs

32

• Ellis described it as a A-B-C process:
• Activating Experience
• The Irrational Belief
• Emotional Consequence

Belief ; Consequence

33

Rational Emotive Therapists challenge clients to identify their irrational ______ and see how these beliefs lead them to their faulty conclusions

beliefs

34

_______ constructs are developed before we learn to speak

Preverbal

35

What is a criticism of the Repertory Grid Technique?

It does not generate a simple test score

36

Aggressive behaviour _____ represent ways to act that we have learned and sometimes practiced

scripts

37

A full understanding of ________ behaviour requires that we also examine the cognitions that come into play when people encounter a potentially threatening or dangerous situation

aggressive

38

Aggressive behaviour _____ represent ways to act that we have learned and sometimes practiced

scripts

39

_____ Aggression the angry and aggressive way some boys respond to even mild frustrations or provocations

Reactive

40

Investigations have found two differences in the way men and women organise information in memory
1. The genders differ in the extent to which self-relevant information is associated with emotions
2. Men and women differ in the extent to which info about themselves is connected with info about personal ___________

relationships

41

Investigations have found two differences in the way men and women organise information in memory
1. The genders differ in the extent to which self-relevant information is associated with ________
2. Men and women differ in the extent to which info about themselves is connected with info about personal relationships

emotions

42

Investigations have found two differences in the way men and women organise information in memory
1. The genders differ in the extent to which self-relevant information is associated with _______
2. Men and women differ in the extent to which info about themselves is connected with info about personal _________

emotions; relationships

43

_____ (Women/Men) are more likely to pay attention to their emotions and the emotions of others

Women

44

Men develop __________ Self-Construals: Men’s self-concepts are relatively unrelated to the cognitive representations they have for other people

Independent

45

Men develop Independent Self-Construals: Men’s self-concepts are relatively _______ to the cognitive representations they have for other people

unrelated

46

Women develop ___________ Self-Construals: women’s self-concepts are highly related to the cognitive representations they have of others and their relationships with those people

Interdependent

47

Women develop Interdependent Self-Construals: women’s self-concepts are highly related to the ________ representations they have of others and their relationships with those people

cognitive

48

_________ people not only remember sad experiences more easily but may also have difficulty keeping themselves from generating one depressing thought after another

Depressed

49

Depressing thoughts are tied to depressing _______

feelings

50

The ________ perspective argues that depressing thoughts can cause people to become depressed

cognitive

51

The thoughts of depressed people are sometimes called Depressive _______ Triads:
1. Have negative thoughts about themselves
2. Pessimistic about the ______
3. Interpret ongoing experiences in a negative manner

Cognitive; future

52

The thoughts of depressed people are sometimes called Depressive Cognitive Triads:
1. Have negative thoughts about _________
2. Pessimistic about the future
3. Interpret ongoing __________ in a negative manner

themselves; experiences

53

_______ Schema (or Depressive Schema): is a cognitive structure containing memories about and associates with depressing events and thoughts

Negative

54

There are similarities between learned helplessness and _________

Depression

55

Negative _______ Style: people with this negative ________ style attribute their problems to stable (enduring) and global (widespread) causes

Cognitive x 2

56

Negative Cognitive Styles are personality variables that are fairly ______ over time

stable

57

Negative Cognitive Style is related to ________

Depression

58

Main assumptions of the cognitive perspective:
1. Sees the human being as a complex but orderly ______ _______ system
2. We integrate, organise, store, and retrieve _________
3. We develop characteristic patterns of _________

information processing; information; thinking

59

We are surrounded by a mass of information that we attempt to only group and process things and selectively _____ to attend to only some stimuli.

choose

60

Cognitive organisation is beneficial as it saves ______ ________ and allows us to understand events using small pieces of information

mental resources

61

Cognitive organisation, however, can be bad, as we might get stuck in a _______ ________

negative perception

62

Our thought influence our actions in 3 ways:
• The way we perceive and interpret the _______
• The way we regard ________
• The way we set ____ and plan to achieve those goals

world; ourselves; goals

63

What are Schemas?
• ____ _________ or categorisations of knowledge based on experience

Mental organisations

64

what is the glue that holds together “order” in the chaos of information?

Schemas

65

What effects perception, the way we encode, and what we remember?

Schemas

66

_____-_______
• Organise and guide the processing of self-related information. Guide what you say and think about yourself, what you do and how you feel.

Self-Schemas

67

Personality researchers are interested in ____-schemas

self

68

It is easier to encode and recall information that is congruent with your ____-_______

self-schema

69

Self-schemas are self-__________

perpetuating

70

______ ______ refer to a type of cognitive representation of the type of person we WANT to be

Possible selves

71

If you have a strong ________ about a certain thing (are you sociable) you should be able to respond more quickly (yes I am)

schema

72

What theory did George Kelly create?

Personal Construct Theory

73

_____ _________: are based on perceptions of past experience and used as basis for future perceptions, interpretations and behaviours

Mental representations

74

Experience influences ________ > ________ influence how we perceive our experiences

constructs x 2

75

According to Kelly _______ therefore consists of the organisation of mental structures through which an individual

Personality

76

Personal constructs are _______ _________ (e.g. Accepting vs. rejecting; Good vs. Bad; along which people or objects can be arranged) which allows for __________ _________ (the hierarchical organisation Superordinate and Subordinate bipolar dimensions)

bipolar dimensions; constructive alternativism

77

Our personal constructs develop due to the operation of particular interpretative processes (called _________)

corollaries

78

How many corollaries are there?

11

79

_________ Corollary: the hierarchical organisation of constructs for a given individual

Organisation

80

__________ Corollary: Bipolarity of constructs

Dichotomy

81

_________ Corollary: we may change constructs, based on experience

Experience

82

_________ Corollary: people with similar personal constructs will behave in similar ways

Communality

83

Range of __________ Corollary: some constructs are applicable to many situations, but other are more narrow

Convenience

84

_______ Corollary: people can freely choose we part of the bipolar dimension applies given a certain situation

Choice

85

___________ Corollary: how we are able to construct an understanding of what is going on around us

Construction

86

__________ Corollary: How much change is possible within an individuals personal construct

Modulation

87

Kelly developed the _______ ____ technique for assessing personality

Repertory Grid

88

What generally involves: creating lists of people you know, then, people are compared in the list to elicit an understand of an individual’s personal construct system

Repertory Grid Technique

89

What technique by Kelly has been widely applied in the therapeutic and organisation settings

Repertory Grid Technique

90

What is a limitation of the repertory Grid technique

Issues with the method of assessment have been noted however, as it does not yield a score to interpret; reliant on the ability of someone to describe the constructs they use; and people can interpret words differently

91

In ______’s model, people experiencing psychological problems are not constructing the world around them accurately

Kelly

92

Controlled _________: the therapist challenges maladaptive constructs and replace them with new ones

elaboration

93

_____ believed people who have emotional problems have irrational beliefs that guide their interpretation of events

Ellis

94

Kelly _______ ________ therapy to help clients change these DEMANDING irrational beliefs and replace them with more rational ones

rational emotive

95

• ABC System:
• ________ Event: (you received a fail, you broke up with a boyfriend)
• _______ System: (“I will always failure, I will never be good enough”)
• __________ (emotional): Depressed, anxious

Activating; Belief; Consequence

96

What do D, E, and F stand for in rational emotive therapy?

Disputation; Education; Feeling

97

• Point D (_________) the therapist argues their belief and asks for examples and evidence
• Point E (________) internally looking for irrational beliefs and disputing them (home work)
• Point F (________) new feelings emerged

Disputation; Education; Feeling

98

Ellis Psychological Disturbance
1. Failure to accept that we are all fallible
2. “_________”: “I must be good at this, I must win this approval”
3. ____ disturbance: if we can’t meet certain demands then our ego is hurt
4. _________ disturbance: the belief that life should always be comfortable

Musterbation; Ego; Discomfort

99

Who created Cognitive Therapy?

Aaron Beck

100

Negative cognitive triad = negative thinking about the _____, the ______, and the ______

self; world; future

101

Does the Cognitive Approach have good empirical validity?

good empirical evidence for Ellis’ theory (Kelly’s Rep Grid Test is hard in an experiment)

102

Does the Cognitive Approach have good applied value?

great schools of therapy have come from them

103

Does the Cognitive Approach have good Testable concepts?

able to test constructs well

104

Does the Cognitive Approach have good Description?

Ellis’ theory is very clear, whil Kelly’s relies on complex language

105

Does the Cognitive Approach have good Heuristic value ?

Very popular in the UK

106

Does the Cognitive Approach have good explanation?

Good description of how our cognition are structured and how these influence behaviour (not enough emphasis on other aspects of behaviour, such as situational determinants

107

Does the Cognitive Approach have good comprehensiveness?

do you think Kelly or Ellis provide the more comprehensive theory? haha a question in a question you sucker ;)

108

If a construct continues to predict constructs well, it will have high _________ efficiency

predictive

109

What is needed for a personal construct to be maintained according to Kelly?

Predictive Efficiency

110

What organises and guides the processing of self-related information, and guides what you say and think about yourself, and what you do and how you feel?

Self-Schemas

111

_________ are mental organisations or categorisations of knowledge based on experience

schemas

112

Our thoughts influence the way we _______ and interpret the world, the way we regard _________, and the way we set goals and plan to achieve those goals

perceive; ourselves

113

_______ _________ are bipolar dimensions that allow for constructive alternativism

Personal constructs

114

How are personal constructs arranged?

Hierarchical

115

Our personal constructs develop due to the operation of particular interpretative processes called __________

corollaries

116

How many corollaries are there?

11

117

Name three corollaries

Organisations, Dichotomy, experience, communality, range of convenience, construction, choice, modulation

118

Kelly argued that people who share similar personal constructs of a situation are psychologically similar. This is reflected by the ___________ corollary

communality

119

What do you do in the Repertory Grid Technique

Create and compare lists of people to gain an understanding of an individual's personal construct system

120

What are the issues with the repertory grid technique?

(1) it does not yield a score to interpret (2) it is reliant on the ability of someone to describe the constructs they use (3) people can interpret words differently

121

In Kelly's model, people experiencing psychological problems are not _________ the world around them accurately

constructing

122

Challenging maladaptive constructs and replacing them with new ones occurs during _________ __________

Controlled elaboration

123

What does A, B, C, D, E, F meaning in Rational Emotive Therapy?

Activating event, Belief system, Consequence, Disputation, Education, Feeling

124

What are the four causes of psychological disturbance according to Ellis?

(1) Failure to accept that we are fallible
(2) "Musturbation"
(3) Ego Disturbance
(4) Discomfort disturbance

125

What are the negative cognitive triad components?

Negative thinking about the self, the world, and the future

126

Negative thinking about the self, the world, and the future is known as what?

Negative cognitive triad

127

In Ellis' model, irrational beliefs are disputed, but what happens next?

Education, then feeling

128

How does this perspective explain psychological problems and importantly, what therapeutic approaches are suggested for treatment?

Self discrepancies; Inaccurate construals; Irrational beliefs and Musturbations

Mainly Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy, and cognitive therapy proposed by beck

129

You read about cognitive research that investigated word memory in depressed people between depression-associated words and nondepression-associated words. Which of the following was not a group that recalled depression-associated words better than normal people?

A. Clinically depressed patients
B. Non-depressed patients
C. Students simply asked to think about some sad events
D. Mildly depressed college students

Non-depressed patients

130

Research on recall for events between men and women has shown that men have better recall of _____ _______ than women.

impersonal events