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Flashcards in Week 10 Humanistic Approach Deck (122):
1

Before the humanistic approach emerged. In the 20th century, what were the two majors views of humanity present?

Freudian and Behaviourism

2

The _________ approach is also know as existential or phenomenological psychology

humanistic

3

A key distinction between the ________ approach and others is that people are assumed to be largely responsible for their actions

Humanistic

4

what is the big difference of the Humanistic approach?

people are assumed to be largely responsible for their actions

5

Existential ______- the feelings of dread and panic that follow the realisation that there is no meaning to one’s life

Anxiety

6

The four elements of Humanistic Approach

1. An emphasis on personal __________
2. An emphasis on the “____ and ____”
3. A Focus on the experience of the individual
4. An emphasis on personal growth

responsibility ; here/now

7

The four elements of Humanistic Approach

1. An emphasis on personal responsibility
2. An emphasis on the “here and now”
3. A Focus on the _______ of the individual
4. An emphasis on personal ______

experience; growth

8

According to the Humanistic Approach, All of our behaviours represent personal ______

choice

9

The Humanistic view says we need not be victims of our _____

past

10

Happiness requires we grow in a positive _______

direction

11

While Maslow used the term Self-Actualisation, Rogers used the term fully _________

functioning

12

Rogers stated that ______ is the result of coming into contact with information that is inconsistent with the way we think of ourselves

anxiety

13

Rogers proposed we initially process information a level below consciousness, a process called ________

Subception

14

Rogers states that most of us grow up in an atmosphere of ________ Positive Regard

Conditional

15

What is the antedote to conditional positive regard?

Unconditional positive regard

16

Explain Conditional positive regard in children and its effects

......

17

What were the two types of motives identified my Maslow?

Deficiency Motives; Growth needs

18

What are Deficiency motives?

result from a lack of some needed object; satisfied when obtained

19

What are Growth Needs?

satisfied by expressing the motive; giving selflessly, growing self

20

The Hierarchy of ______ identifies _ basic categories of needs

Needs; 5

21

Explain how the hierarchy of needs is a hierarchy of prominence

some of our unsatisfied needs demand our attention more than others

22

1 ________ Needs
2 Safety Needs
3 Belongingness and ____ needs
4 Esteem Needs
5 Need for Self-Acualisation

Physiological; Love

23

1 Physiological Needs
2 _____ Needs
3 Belongingness and Love needs
4 _____ Needs
5 Need for Self-Acualisation

Safety; Esteem

24

1 Physiological Needs
2 Safety Needs
3 Belongingness and Love needs
4 Esteem Needs
5 Need for ____-________

Self-Acualisation

25

What are the two types of love identified by Maslow?

RogersD-love; B-Love

26

Most behaviour is the result of multiple ________

motivations

27

Maslow used ‘______ analysis’ over statistical analysis

holistic

28

What is holistic analysis?

Gathering all the information and coming to a subjective conclusion

29

Do all self-actualised individuals have peak experiences?

No; There are peakers and non-peakers

30

Csikszentmihalyi stated Optimal Experience: moments where individuals are caught up in an experience that requires all their attention, and nothing else matters. This is also known as ____

flow

31

Csikszentmihalyi stated that there are how many components to optimal experience?

8

32

Flow experiences are much more likely to happen at _____ then leisure activities

work

33

What does the therapist do in client centred therapy?

The therapist provides an atmosphere where the clients are able to help understand themselves

34

Who is responsible for change in CCT?

]Clients are responsible for changing themselves

35

Who created CCT?

Carl Rogers

36

What is CCT?

Client Centered therapy

37

Euphychian _________: rearranging an organisation to help employees satisfy higher level needs

Management

38

The _-___ is a valid and reliable way to test the effectiveness of psychotherapy

Q-sort

39

Explain the Q-sort test?

100 cards, Self discription, twice, normal distribution

40

People engage in ___-________ when they reveal intimate information about themselves to another person

Self-Disclosure

41

A therapeutic relationship is not one-sided, Rogers maintained that appropriate ___-_______ by the therapist is beneficial

self-disclosure

42

The way we reveal information about ourselves is governed by a set of unstated but understood _____

rules

43

A social rule called ______ _________ is when people involved in a get-acquainted conversation reveal information about themselves at roughly the same level of intimacy

Disclosure Reciprocity

44

What is Disclosure Reciprocity?

It is when people involved in a get-acquainted conversation reveal information about themselves at roughly the same level of intimacy

45

The Reciprocity rule does not always apply to close ______

Friends

46

Willingness to self-disclose is also related to how easily one makes ______

friends

47

Can loneliness contribute to physical illness?

Yes

48

________ is not the same as isolation

Loneliness

49

________ is our perception of how much social interaction we have and the quality of that interaction

Loneliness

50

Is loneliness a fairly stable personality trait?

Yes

51

What are the two characteristics of lonely people?

Negative Expectations ; Poorly Developed Social Skills

52

A central goal of ________ psychotherapy is to get clients to accept and appreciate themselves for who they are

Rogerian

53

Humanistic personality theory is concerned with the individual’s ___-______

self-esteem

54

___-______ is the cumulation of what you see as your personal characteristics

Self-Concept

55

___-_____ refers to your evaluation of your self-concept

Self-Esteem

56

How we respond to failure often depends on our level of what?

self-esteem

57

High self-esteem people develop personal _______ for blunting the effects of negative feedback

strategies

58

What is Global Self-Esteem?

: the overall evaluation we have about ourselves

59

The overall evaluation of ourselves is called what?

Global Self-Esteem

60

How many steps are there in the process of Global Self-Esteem?

2

61

_______ of Self-Worth refers to areas we use to evaluate ourselves (specific domains)

Contingencies

62

Is the meaning of self-esteem different between individualistic and collectivist cultures?

Yes

63

Maslow found for self-actualised people that large amounts of _______ can actually be a positive behaviour

solitude

64

What method do investigators use to determine how often we spend time by ourselves?

The Experience Sampling Method

65

Solitude becomes a more common experience as we ___

age

66

Some writes have referred to _______ as “self-restoration’ process in which we re-establish a sense of who we are separate from the ‘social’ self we present to others

solitude

67

What are the assumptions of the Humanistic perspective?

(1) personal responsibility (2) Living in the present (3) phenomenology of individual (4) Personal growth trajectory (5) Uniqueness of self

68

In ________ psychology, YOU have the power to shape your own life and YOU are ultimately responsible for what happens

humanistic

69

___________: subjective experience of the individual

Phenomenology

70

P____________ has important use in humanistic therapy

Phenomenology

71

In therapy, ____ learn how to help yourself (therapist as the facilitator)

YOU

72

According to Maslow’ theory, we are motivated by two types of motives:
1. _________ motives:
• Basic needs which we are driven to satisfy
• Once satisfied, these motives will cease to direct our behaviour (food, water)
2. _______ needs:
• These needs are sometimes referred to ______ motives or (B-motives)
Satisfaction of these needs can actually motivate us further to achieve them (unselfish love, thirst for knowledge

Deficiency; Growth; being

73

What are the two needs we are motivated by according to Maslow?

Deficiency and growth (being needs)

74

______________: the ability to become whatever you are capable of becoming

Self-actualisation

75

Name the Hierarchy of needs from bottom to top

(5) Physiological (4) Safety (3) Belonging-love (2) Self-esteem (1) Self-actualisation

76

Name the Hierarchy of needs from bottom to top

(5) Physiological (4) Safety (3) Belonging-love (2) Self-esteem (1) Self-actualisation

77

Name the Hierarchy of needs from bottom to top

(5) Physiological (4) Safety (3) Belonging-love (2) Self-esteem (1) Self-actualisation

78

Maslow later added ___________ (which focuses on mystical; spiritual) to his Heirarchy

transcendence

79

You are more psychologically healthy the closer you are to what? (According to Maslow)

Self-Actualisation

80

How did Maslow research his hierarchy ?

Case studies, studied famous people, all sorts of methods

81

Name some of the characteristics of self-actualisers

Characteristics of self-actualisers
• Accepting
• Spontaneous
• Problem-centred
• Independent and autonomous
• Freshness or appreciation
• Identity with humanity (Oceanic)
• Deep ties with few people
• Appreciate process
• Philosophical sense of humour
• Creativity and inventiveness
• Strong

82

Name some of the characteristics of self-actualisers

Characteristics of self-actualisers
• Accepting
• Spontaneous
• Problem-centred
• Independent and autonomous
• Freshness or appreciation
• Identity with humanity (Oceanic)
• Deep ties with few people
• Appreciate process
• Philosophical sense of humour
• Creativity and inventiveness
• Strong

83

Name some of the characteristics of self-actualisers

Characteristics of self-actualisers
• Accepting
• Spontaneous
• Problem-centred
• Independent and autonomous
• Freshness or appreciation
• Identity with humanity (Oceanic)
• Deep ties with few people
• Appreciate process
• Philosophical sense of humour
• Creativity and inventiveness
• Strong

84

Self-actualisers are more likely to engage in _____ ________: which includes being accepting of oneself and feeling connected with the world (non-judgemental)

being conjunction

85

Is self-actualisation a constant state?

No

86

The self-actualising form of cognition occurs when having ___ _______

peak experiences

87

Maslow used interviews, observations, biographical studies, self-report questionnaires and projective tests to “measure” ____ - __________

self-actualisation

88

In Maslow's theory If needs are not being met, an individual cannot be __________ _______

psychologically healthy

89

The lower the needs in the hierarchy which is yet to be satisfied, the poorer the _______ wellbeing

mental

90

Was rogers or maslows therapeutic technique eclectic

Maslow

91

Where you could apply Maslow's theory?

Education; Work: Job motivation and Eupsychian management (where everyone is trusted)

92

What is Optimal experience?

An experience one is COMPLETELY engaged in which is truly enjoyable

93

Csikszentmihalyi termed such experiences optimal experiences or _____

flow

94

Name some of the Flow characteristics

The 8 characteristics of Optimal Experiences
1. Attention is completely absorbed
2. Activity has clear goals
3. Activity is challenging, but not so difficult that meaningful progress cannot be achieved
4. Concentration is centred only on the task
5. Individual feels in control
6. Loss of self-consciousness
7. Feedback is available
8. Time passes very quickly

95

According to Rogers when one reaches an optimal sense of satisfaction, they are seen to be _____ _______ :

fully functioning

96

An individual who has:
• High self-esteem and self-acceptance
• Accept mistakes and learn from them
• Make choices consistent with their values and interests
• Experience feelings more deeply and intensely than others

Are: ________ ___________ ; According to who?

Fully functioning; Rogers

97

___-_______ : who we are, but based on how others have evaluated us

Self-concept

98

Real ____________ self: the individual we are capable of being if we have ideal developmental experiences

organismic

99

If there is a discrepancy between self-concept and ideal self ...this equals what?

Anxiety

100

________ according to who? refers to keep anxious thoughts out of consciousness

Subception; Rogers

101

As we grow, we develop _______ of ______: the positive regard we need to thrive is dependent on how we behave

conditions of worth

102

According to Rogers, the main factor in determining when we will become self-actualised is our __________ experiences

childhood

103

According to Rogers for optimal development (self-actualisation), we need to experience ________ _______ _________:

unconditional positive regard

104

The more conditions of worth we have within our self-concept, the poorer the __________ __________

psychological health

105

The goal of therapy, according to ________ model, is to enable the client to help themselves to become more self-accepting

Rogers

106

_______ Person Centred Therapy
• Providing an atmosphere for the client to help themselves
• Reflection is often used

Rogers’

107

Six core conditions of counselling are needed:
1. The client and the therapist must be in __________ contact (it must get deep)
2. The client is in a state of ____________ (there is something wrong)
3. Therapist is congruent in the relationship (the therapist is genuine)
4. The therapist has unconditional positive regard and empathy
5. Empathetic understanding
6. Client perceives the unconditional positive regard and empathy

psychological; incongruence

108

• Six core conditions of counselling are needed:
1. The client and the therapist must be in psychological contact (it must get deep)
2. The client is in a state of incongruence (there is something wrong)
3. Therapist is _________ in the relationship (the therapist is genuine)
4. The therapist has _______ _________ _________ and empathy
5. Empathetic understanding
6. Client perceives the unconditional positive regard and empathy

congruent; unconditional positive regard

109

• Six core conditions of counselling are needed:
1. The client and the therapist must be in psychological contact (it must get deep)
2. The client is in a state of incongruence (there is something wrong)
3. Therapist is congruent in the relationship (the therapist is genuine)
4. The therapist has unconditional positive regard and empathy
5. ___________ understanding
6. Client __________ the unconditional positive regard and empathy

Empathetic; perceives

110

What assessment was developed to assess efficacy of person centred therapy?

Q-Sort task

111

What humanistic assessment allows examination of discrepancies between the client’s image of self (Real self) and ideal self

Q-sort

112

What are the assumptions of the humanistic approach?

Personal responsibility; Here and now; phenomenology of the individual; personal change and growth; holistic view

113

__________ means subjective experience of an individual

phenomenology

114

Are "being cognitions" constant?

No

115

______ ________ include being accepting of oneself and feeling connected to the world

Being Cognitions

116

Name some characteristics of a self-actualised person

Spontaneous, creative, indépendant, problem-centred; deep ties with others; accepting

117

The real _______ self: the individual we are capable of being if we have ideal developmental experiences

organismic

118

When is there anxiety according to Rogers?

When there is a discrepancy between self-concept and ideal self

119

_______ of _______: the positive regard we need to thrive is dependant on how we behave

Conditions of Worth

120

What is the goal of client centred therapy?

Removing conditions of worth from an individual

121

The more conditions of worth, the ________ psychological health

poorer

122

Six core conditions of counselling according to Rogers

1. The client and therapists must be in psychological ________
2. The client is in a state of ___________
3. The therapist is ________ in the relationship
4. Therapist has unconditional postive regard for client
5. Empathetic understanding
6. Client perceives the unconditional positive regard and _______

contact; incongruence; congruent; empathy