Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (27):
96% of living things are made of:
Carbon (C), Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H), and Nitrogen (N)
Small, simple, basic building blocks, subunits, micro molecules
Large, complex, macro molecules
Carbohydrates are used for
Ratio of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen in a Carb
Molecules that have the same CHEMICAL FORMULA but different STRUCTURAL formula creating an entirely different substance (C6 H12 O6 as fructose or glucose)
2 monosaccharides ex lactose (glucose+galactose)
Make chemical reactions take place by breaking chemical bonds, protein composed of amino acids in a specific shape/sequence in active site, reusable and reversible (-ASE instead of -OSE) AKA organic catalysts or bio catalysts
Breaking bonds (digestion) by adding water
Making bonds by removing water or dehydration
Polysaccharide from plants-stored energy (plant lipids/oils) glucose monomers (before entering liver and being broken down into glycogen)
Polysaccharide from plants-supports cell wall-we cannot break it down but it helps move food though digestive track
Polysaccharide from mammals-stored energy in liver for later use (glucose monomers after being synthesized)
3 fatty acids and a glycerol in an E shape
Examples of lipids and function
Fats (protection/insulation/long term storage), steroids (cell membrane/sex cell hormones/estrogen and testosterone)
Unsaturated fats have..
Double bonds so they need less hydrogen atoms. Saturated fats have single bonds and can lead to buildup of plaque/high blood pressure
What are the building blocks/micromolecules of proteins?
What are the macromolecules of proteins?
Polypeptides (multiple amino acids synthesized through amino+carboxyl group together to form water)
What is the structure of an amino acid?
Carboxyl group (OH-c=o) Amino group (H-N-H) Side chain (20 different/AKA variative group/R-Group) and a Hydrogen (backbones)
To find the # of amino acids in a polypeptide structure...
Count the number of Nitrogens (N)
What does the structure/shape of enzymes determine and what is it determined by?
DNA determines structure/shape determines function
DNA and RNA, composed of Nucleotides (A,T,C,G)
Examples of proteins and function?
Hemoglobin (carries oxygen in blood) Insulin (
Coenzymes to help them work properly
Factors affecting enzyme activity/graph pattern?
Temperature (shrinks^optimum 37 humans v denatures) pH (denatures^optimum v denatures) Enzyme/Substrate concentration (increase^flatlines>)
Amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction, prevents macromolecules from decomposing spontaneously