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Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (27):
0

96% of living things are made of:

Carbon (C), Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H), and Nitrogen (N)

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Monomer

Small, simple, basic building blocks, subunits, micro molecules

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Polymer

Large, complex, macro molecules

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Carbohydrates are used for

Energy respiration

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Ratio of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen in a Carb

1:2:1

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Isomer/Monosaccharide

Molecules that have the same CHEMICAL FORMULA but different STRUCTURAL formula creating an entirely different substance (C6 H12 O6 as fructose or glucose)

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Disaccharide

2 monosaccharides ex lactose (glucose+galactose)

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Enzymes

Make chemical reactions take place by breaking chemical bonds, protein composed of amino acids in a specific shape/sequence in active site, reusable and reversible (-ASE instead of -OSE) AKA organic catalysts or bio catalysts

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Hydrolysis

Breaking bonds (digestion) by adding water

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Synthesis

Making bonds by removing water or dehydration

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Starch

Polysaccharide from plants-stored energy (plant lipids/oils) glucose monomers (before entering liver and being broken down into glycogen)

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Cellulose

Polysaccharide from plants-supports cell wall-we cannot break it down but it helps move food though digestive track

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Glycogen

Polysaccharide from mammals-stored energy in liver for later use (glucose monomers after being synthesized)

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Lipid structure

3 fatty acids and a glycerol in an E shape

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Examples of lipids and function

Fats (protection/insulation/long term storage), steroids (cell membrane/sex cell hormones/estrogen and testosterone)

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Unsaturated fats have..

Double bonds so they need less hydrogen atoms. Saturated fats have single bonds and can lead to buildup of plaque/high blood pressure

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What are the building blocks/micromolecules of proteins?

Amino acids

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What are the macromolecules of proteins?

Polypeptides (multiple amino acids synthesized through amino+carboxyl group together to form water)

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What is the structure of an amino acid?

Carboxyl group (OH-c=o) Amino group (H-N-H) Side chain (20 different/AKA variative group/R-Group) and a Hydrogen (backbones)

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To find the # of amino acids in a polypeptide structure...

Count the number of Nitrogens (N)

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What does the structure/shape of enzymes determine and what is it determined by?

DNA determines structure/shape determines function

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Nucleic acid

DNA and RNA, composed of Nucleotides (A,T,C,G)

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Examples of proteins and function?

Hemoglobin (carries oxygen in blood) Insulin (

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Vitamins

Coenzymes to help them work properly

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Factors affecting enzyme activity/graph pattern?

Temperature (shrinks^optimum 37 humans v denatures) pH (denatures^optimum v denatures) Enzyme/Substrate concentration (increase^flatlines>)

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Activation energy

Amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction, prevents macromolecules from decomposing spontaneously

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Enzyme inhibitors

Competitive inhibitors compete for active site while non competitive bond to a different part and change shape of active site so it doesn't fit (opposite of vitamins)