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Biology > Ecology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ecology Deck (81):
1

Levels of ecological organization

Biosphere (largest), ecosystem, community, population, individual (smallest)

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Population

ONE SPECIES in ONE AREA

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Community

VARIOUS POPULATIONS in ONE AREA

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Ecosystems

Community of biotic and abiotic things interacting with each other

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Biosphere

EVERYTHING ON EARTH, ALLL THE ECOSYSTEMS

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Food chain

Producer (autotroph)-->primary consumer (herbivore)-->2ndary consumer (omnivore/carnivore)-->tertiary consumer (carnivore)-->decomposer

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Bio-magnification

Pollutants from the producer will be worse in the next level

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Movement of Energy

UP THE PYRAMID Producer--->Decomposer, in the form of organic molecules/chemical energy, energy is lost to heat as it moves up

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Scavengers

Feed on bodies of dead organisms

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Parasites

Lives and feeds on host organisms

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Energy pyramid

Shows the amount of energy available in an ecosystem at each feeding (TROPHIC) level DECREASES AS U GO UP

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Biomass pyramid

Shows the relative mass of organisms (BIOMASS) at each feeding level DECREASES AS U GO UP

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Pyramid of Numbers

Population size also tends to generally decease as you move up through the trophic levels

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3 Levels of Biodiversity

The diversity of ECOSYSTEMS found of earth, species in a COMMUNITY, and diversity within a SPECIES

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More diverse=

More stable

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Negative human affects on biodiversity

Over harvesting, alien species introduction CANE FROGS, habitat fragmentation, pollution, habitat destruction

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Biodiversity benefits for us

The richer the diversity of life, the greater the opportunity for medical discoveries and economic development

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Ecosystems help to...

Protect water source
Form soil
Store/recycle nutrients
Break down pollutants
Increase climate stability

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Biological resources

Food
Medicine
Building materials like wood

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Social benefits

Research+education
Recreation+tourism

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Niche

Specific role of an organism in its environment, no 2 organisms can occupy the same niche at the same time

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Habitat

Where in the community that organism lives

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Mutualism

+/+ (lichens, flowers and insects)

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Commensalism

+/0 (barnacles on a whale)

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Parasitism

+/- (tapeworms, mistletoe, athletes foot)

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Competition

Struggle for limited resources among organisms

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Limiting factors

Limits pop size (space, light, temp, food, predators)

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Carrying capacity

The largest pop of any species that an area can support at one time, determined by limiting factor (population size cycles up and down on carrying capacity line)

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Population would go straight up...

If there are unlimited resources/no limiting factors NEVER HAPPENS IRL

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Carbon and oxygen move by

Photosynthesis an respiration

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Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen: important part of ANIMO ACIDS needed to make PROTIENS

Decomposers: bacteria and fungi make nitrogen available to other organisms

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Ecological succession

Process when an existing community is replaced by another

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Primary succession

1ST group of communities that moves into the previous lifeless habitat (bare rock)

Rock-lichens-mosses-grasses-trees and shrubs-forest

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Pioneer organisms

Can live where no other organism can
Ex: lichens

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Pond succession

Pond-sedimentation-swamp-forest

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Secondary succession

A disturbance can wipe out everything except soil

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Climax community

Diverse and stable ecosystem that is the end result of succession
Ex: hard wood Forest

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Biome

Land region inhabited by certain types of organisms, especially plants
Ex: desert, grassland, forest
Order of biomes as latitude/altitude increase: tropical forest, deciduous, taiga, tundra, ice/snow

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Biomes

Tundra: cold, short growing season, topsoil thaws (lichens, mosses, shrubs)
Taiga: cold winter, longer growing season where ground thaws completely (coniferous trees, pines, firs)
Temperate deciduous forest: seasons, abundant rainfall (maple, hickory, flowers, etc)
Grasslands: can't support trees, moderate rainfall, temperate-tropical
Desert: hot days, cold nights, little rainfall no grass (cactus, plants adapted to little water)
Tropical rain forest: constant, high temp., a lot of rainfall all the time, humid(large broad leaves trees)

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Importance of Marine Biomes

Gives us the most oxygen found in the air
Lots of photosynthesis goin on here

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Why is the human population a problem?

Human population is increasing exponentially
We are quickly using the earths finite resources
Population growth is outpacing food in some regions

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Nonrenewable resources

Cannot be replaced over time, coal, oil, natural gas, metals

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Response to Nonrenewable resources

Reduce, reuse, recycle

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The levels of biodiversity =

Stability of the ecosystem

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Humans have decreased biodiversity by

Direct harvesting, endangering, polluting, harming and introducing new invasive species( also other bad stuff we do)

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Poaching

Illegally catching/killing organisms

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Deforestation

Destruction of forests bc of human activity (burning, cutting, farming, building)

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Imported species =

INVASIVE
No natural predators

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Direct harvesting

The destruction or removal of species from their habitat(lead to endangerment and extinction)

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Imported species

AKA invasive, no natural predators and disturb food web

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Characteristics of invasive species

Fast growth, rapid repro, high dispersal ability(very adaptive), tolerance of a wide range of environ. conditions, ability to live off of a wide range of food types

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Industrialization

The development of an economy in which machines produce many of the products people use

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Tech increase human growth by...

Increasing food supply , improvements in health care, improved sanitation practices

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Rise of human pop cause increase of demand of

Energy, fossils and nuclear fuels, and water

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Negative effects of human growth on water

-increase consumption
-waste from homes and factories are dumped in waterways->pollution

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Thermal pollution

- water used in industries and power plants to cool machines, warm water released into river, warm water doesn't have much O2 ,suffocation in species

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Fossil fuel

Formed from remains of organisms that lived millions of years ago

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Good ozone

Protects us from Uv Rays in stratosphere

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Bad ozone

AKA smog, respiratory irritant in the troposphere

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Ozone depletion

Destruction of ozone shield

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CFC

Used as coolants in fridges, air conditioner, aerosol cans and plastic products, causes OZONE DEPLETION

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Uv radiation leads to

Skin cancer, cataracts , reduction of crop yield, disruption of marine ecosystem

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Acid rain

Precipitation that has a low pH due to sulfur and nitrogen compound added by burning fossil fuels

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Negative effects of acid rain

Forest decline, leaching of metals form rock and soil , decay of limestone/marble, respiratory damage, acidification and destruction of aquatic ecosystems

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Global warming

GREENHOUSE GASES co2-->up temp (not to be confused with ozone depletion)

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Problems of fossil fuels

Nonrenewable , polluting , global warming , acid rain

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Solution

Use renewal and clean energy, conserve resources (carpool, etc)

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Hydroelectric power

Generations energy with water by moving turbines (dams)

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Tidal electrical generators

Limited only to places with a great diff btwn high and low tides

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Solar energy

U SHOULD KNOW THIS BY NOW

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How can solar energy be converted

Photovoltaic (PV Device) or "solar cells " change into electricity

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Concentrations Solar Power Plants

using the heat from solar thermal collectors to heat a fluid which produces steam to power generator

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Wind turbine

Uses blade to collect the winds kinetic energy, blades turn drive shaft to turn and electric generator

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Geothermal energy

Heat from earths core , heat are continuously produced inside the Earth by slow decay of radioactive particles

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Biomass

Burned to release energy(wood, crops etc), also can become methane gas or transportation fuel like ethanol and biodiesel

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Nuclear energy

Produced from splitting of atoms Good by low levels of pollution but Bad bc it is large amounts of hazardous radioactive waste

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Soil depletion

Modern farming does not allow for normal recycling of materials (no nutrients left for bacteria to do their job)

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DDT

Toxic spray crops-rain brought to crops-move up food chain-fish eating birds produce fragile eggs- easily broken - next generation killed BIOMAGNIFICATION

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Biological magnification

Toxic chemical are at higher concentrations at higher concentrations in food chain

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Biological control

Using a living organism to control a pest pop, can include viruses, should be a native species(ladybugs are used to control aphid, bad-cane toads)

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Predator and prey relationship

PREY>PREDATOR keep in check