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Flashcards in Inorganic Chemistry Deck (37):
0

Matter

Anything that occupies space/has mass (elements, compounds, and mixtures)

1

Atom

Basic building blocks of all matter/smallest possible particle of an ELEMENT not life

2

Proton

Subatomic particle with a positive charge➕, located in nucleus, 1amu

3

Neutron

Subatomic particle with a neutral charge, located in nucleus, 1amu

4

Electron

Subatomic particle with a negative charge➖, orbits around nucleus, basically no mass

5

Atomic number

Number of PROTONS (only=electrons in a non ion)

6

Atomic Mass

Mass of Protons+Neutrons in nucleus (round to nearest whole #)

7

Number of electrons in each energy level/cloud

1st=2
2nd=8
3rd=18

8

How do you tell the number of valence electrons?

Periodic table: 1v, 2 (skip transition metals) 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 (noble gas)

9

Molecule

Two or more atoms held together by COVALENT bonds/type of compound/nonmetal+nonmetal/no salts

10

Element

A group of identical atoms

11

Compound

Two or more different elements in a fixed ratio (covalent or ionic)

12

Protein

25%
Organic

13

Salts

1%
Inorganic

14

Fats/carbs/lipids

7%
Organic

15

Water

67%
Inorganic

16

What elements make up organic matter?

Carbon (C) and Hydrogen (H) (nitrogen is also important)

17

Isotope

Same number of protons, different number of nuetrons

18

Ionic bond

TRANSFER metal (lose) and nonmetal (gain) to become a salt/crystal (becomes atoms with opposite charges that are attracted to each other and easier to break than covalent)

19

Oxidation

A metal atom that loses electrons (LEO says GER)

20

Reduction

A nonmetal atom that gains electrons (LEO says GER)

21

Covalent bond

SHARE nonmetal+nonmetal/molecules/shown with line which represents a pair of 2 electrons/harder to break than an ionic bond

22

The # of covalent bonds an atom can form is the..

# of valence electrons needed to fill outer shell (H can form 1, O can form 2, etc) maximum 3 bonds between 2 elements but can form bonds with other elements if it needs more

23

Polar covalent bond

Atoms that do not exert the same pull on shared electrons/The stronger atom ends up with a slight negative charge (more electrons on that side)

24

Nonpolar covent bond

No difference in charge between the two ends of bonds (diatomic N2, O2 etc)

25

Mixture

Not chemically combine ex salt water

26

Diatomic Molecules

2 of the same element (O2, N2, H2, Cl2)

27

Substance

Chemically combined

28

Acids

Form hydrogen ions (H+) in solution...
HCl hydrochloride acid dissolves in H+ and Cl-/less than 7 pH/Electrolyte

29

Electrolytes/ types of Electrolytes

Free moving ions in a mixture that conducts electricity. Aqueous salts (NaCl MaCl) and Acids (HCl HNo) and Bases (NaOH)

30

Aqueous Salts

Breaks up, Cl- attracts to H+ and Na+ attracts to O-,

31

As water cools, hydrogen bonds..

Form and release energy to moderate temp

32

As water heats, hydrogen bonds..

Break and absorb energy to moderate temp

33

Ph Scale

Measures the hydrogen ion (H+) concentratin
0(most acidic)--7(nuetral)--> 14(basic)

34

Hydrogen bonds form intermolecular attraction when?

(O-) is attracted to (H+) causing cohesion, adhesion, and capillary action

35

Bases

Any compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water...
NaOH sodium hydroxide dissolves into Na+ and OH-/Electrolyte

36

Neutralization

The Ph level is returned to 7 when the H+ from the acid combines with the OH- from the base forming H2O