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Flashcards in Biotechnology Deck (41):
1

Hybridization

Individuals w/ desirable traits are mated to produce offspring w/ a COMBINATION of both traits (Horse+Donkey=Mule, Liger....sterile) type of selective breeding

2

Evolution

Change in population (species) overtime, we can cause it

3

Pros and cons of selective breeding

Pros=favorable characteristics
Cons=results not guarenteed (variation) selective breeding for certain traits may cause problems w other traits, sterility

4

Inbreeding/risk

Selective breeding incest used when #s of available organisms are small; recessive disorders expressed (like hemophilia) sterility

5

GMO

Genetically modified organism w/ desirable traits, may disturb food chain if accidentally released into wild (salmon)

6

Transgenic

Contains DNA from other species (GMO)

7

GMO risks

Creation of new allergens, fear of unknown effects on future generations

8

GM viruses pro/con

Pro=make vaccines
Con=used in biological warfare

9

DNA technology

Branch of biotech where scientists alter genomes of organisms @ molecular level (DNA codes for proteins tht determine our traits)

10

Vectors

A way of getting genes from 1 organism to another (bacterial plasmids, viruses)

11

Plasmids

Circular bacterial chromosomes (human=x) splice genes into them and use them as vectors

12

2 main reasons for using bacteria/plasmid

HGH (human growth hormone) or insulin (diabetes)

13

Genetic engineering Recombinant DNA

Cut desired gene at palindrome and combine with plasmid (gene splicing). Insert new recombinant DNA into cell of another organism. Clones recombinant DNA when cell undergoes mitosis

14

Restriction enzyme

Cuts plasmid and the gene being added

15

Genome

Complete set of an organisms genetic material

16

What codes/ doesn't code for proteins in organisms?

Genes code, parts that don't are called non-coding regions

17

Linkage map

Shows the relative locations of genes on a chromosome

18

Human Genome Project

Completely map human genome by sequencing the order of nucleotides and distinguishing regions that code/non-code

19

Importance of human genome project

•Show EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS by comparing genes of diff species
•Identifying genes help in diagnosing, treating, and preventing DISEASE

20

Gene therapy

Putting correct gene into our cells, NOT inherited (injected in body cell not sex cell)

21

Gene therapy challenges

Vector makes person sick, gene delivered to many/the right kinds of cells, delivered to right part of the cells genome, gene needs to be expressed/turned on

22

Hybrid vs GMO

•Hybrid=sex cells, selective breeding (cows)
•GMO=no sex, transgenic, only hereditary if gene implanted early (plasmid, glow pigs)
•BOTH ARTIFICIAL

23

Artificial selection (Selective Breeding)

Individuals with desirable traits are mated to produce offspring w/ those traits (DOGS)

24

Why do we fingerprint?

To identify ppl (CSI), paternity/maternity testing (who da babydaddy??) to see how closely 2 species are related

25

Genetic markers

Particular stretches of DNA variable among individuals, the NON-CODING regions are highly variable

26

What if you only find very little DNA for DNA fingerprinting?

More copies made by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) aka DNA amplification

27

Steps for Gel Electrophoresis?

1) Amplified DNA cut w specific restriction enzyme and put in well
2) Electric current passed through gel (one side - one side +)
3) Smaller segments move faster/farther from neg>pos end
4) Gel is strained so we see banding pattern

28

Gel Electrophoresis separates DNA segments by..

Size

29

Charge of DNA?

Negative

30

What end do we find the smallest DNA fragments?

Positive end

31

Why do we get different banding patterns for each individual?

Every persons DNA is unique unless ur an identical twin

32

Recombinant DNA technology

Cloning, put DNA into bacterial plasmid, will be reproduced along with host cell DNA (mitosis)

33

Reproductive cloning

Generate animals with same genetic information of another (first mammal cloned from adult DNA=Dolly the sheep)

34

SCNT

Somatic cell nuclear transfer, fuse nucleus of a body cell into enucleated egg cell with an electric shock. Fused cells divide and become embryo. Embryo implanted into foster uterus

35

Reasons for reproductive cloning

Agricultural productivity, raise drug producing/genetically altered animals to study for human disease, repopulate

36

Therapeutic Cloning

Growing stem cells for Alzheimer's, cancer, organ transplant etc

37

Why would someone want to clone a gene (recombinant DNA)?

Making insulin for diabetes or human growth hormone

38

Why would someone want to clone an animal?

In order to produce other animals with the same characteristics w/o selective breeding/inbreeding

39

Why would someone want to use stem cells?

Stem cells can be promoted to any tissue in the body

40

Give a reason against animal cloning

Unethical, many die during artificial pregnancy and animals never asked for this bro

41

Give a reason against using stem cells

Unethical, stem cells are embryos and have to potential to become a baby