Flashcards in Biotechnology Deck (41):
Individuals w/ desirable traits are mated to produce offspring w/ a COMBINATION of both traits (Horse+Donkey=Mule, Liger....sterile) type of selective breeding
Change in population (species) overtime, we can cause it
Pros and cons of selective breeding
Cons=results not guarenteed (variation) selective breeding for certain traits may cause problems w other traits, sterility
Selective breeding incest used when #s of available organisms are small; recessive disorders expressed (like hemophilia) sterility
Genetically modified organism w/ desirable traits, may disturb food chain if accidentally released into wild (salmon)
Contains DNA from other species (GMO)
Creation of new allergens, fear of unknown effects on future generations
GM viruses pro/con
Con=used in biological warfare
Branch of biotech where scientists alter genomes of organisms @ molecular level (DNA codes for proteins tht determine our traits)
A way of getting genes from 1 organism to another (bacterial plasmids, viruses)
Circular bacterial chromosomes (human=x) splice genes into them and use them as vectors
2 main reasons for using bacteria/plasmid
HGH (human growth hormone) or insulin (diabetes)
Genetic engineering Recombinant DNA
Cut desired gene at palindrome and combine with plasmid (gene splicing). Insert new recombinant DNA into cell of another organism. Clones recombinant DNA when cell undergoes mitosis
Cuts plasmid and the gene being added
Complete set of an organisms genetic material
What codes/ doesn't code for proteins in organisms?
Genes code, parts that don't are called non-coding regions
Shows the relative locations of genes on a chromosome
Human Genome Project
Completely map human genome by sequencing the order of nucleotides and distinguishing regions that code/non-code
Importance of human genome project
•Show EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS by comparing genes of diff species
•Identifying genes help in diagnosing, treating, and preventing DISEASE
Putting correct gene into our cells, NOT inherited (injected in body cell not sex cell)
Gene therapy challenges
Vector makes person sick, gene delivered to many/the right kinds of cells, delivered to right part of the cells genome, gene needs to be expressed/turned on
Hybrid vs GMO
•Hybrid=sex cells, selective breeding (cows)
•GMO=no sex, transgenic, only hereditary if gene implanted early (plasmid, glow pigs)
Artificial selection (Selective Breeding)
Individuals with desirable traits are mated to produce offspring w/ those traits (DOGS)
Why do we fingerprint?
To identify ppl (CSI), paternity/maternity testing (who da babydaddy??) to see how closely 2 species are related
Particular stretches of DNA variable among individuals, the NON-CODING regions are highly variable
What if you only find very little DNA for DNA fingerprinting?
More copies made by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) aka DNA amplification
Steps for Gel Electrophoresis?
1) Amplified DNA cut w specific restriction enzyme and put in well
2) Electric current passed through gel (one side - one side +)
3) Smaller segments move faster/farther from neg>pos end
4) Gel is strained so we see banding pattern
Gel Electrophoresis separates DNA segments by..
Charge of DNA?
What end do we find the smallest DNA fragments?
Why do we get different banding patterns for each individual?
Every persons DNA is unique unless ur an identical twin
Recombinant DNA technology
Cloning, put DNA into bacterial plasmid, will be reproduced along with host cell DNA (mitosis)
Generate animals with same genetic information of another (first mammal cloned from adult DNA=Dolly the sheep)
Somatic cell nuclear transfer, fuse nucleus of a body cell into enucleated egg cell with an electric shock. Fused cells divide and become embryo. Embryo implanted into foster uterus
Reasons for reproductive cloning
Agricultural productivity, raise drug producing/genetically altered animals to study for human disease, repopulate
Growing stem cells for Alzheimer's, cancer, organ transplant etc
Why would someone want to clone a gene (recombinant DNA)?
Making insulin for diabetes or human growth hormone
Why would someone want to clone an animal?
In order to produce other animals with the same characteristics w/o selective breeding/inbreeding
Why would someone want to use stem cells?
Stem cells can be promoted to any tissue in the body
Give a reason against animal cloning
Unethical, many die during artificial pregnancy and animals never asked for this bro