Sexual Reproduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Sexual Reproduction Deck (70):
0

Gametes

Sex cell (egg sperm)

1

Reduction division

Chromosome # cut in half, meiosis 1

2

Zygote

Fertilized egg (2n)

4

Meiosis diagram using (n)

2n>(4n)>n+n

5

Haploid/Monoploid

Half the #of chromosomes (n=23 in humans)

5

Karyotype

Each chromosomes has homologous pairs that is the same size and shape, one from each parent

7

2 other words for body cells?

Diploid (2n) or somatic cell

8

Sexual reproduction

2 parents (flowers)

9

Autosomes in body cells for male and for female?

22 pairs autosomes +XX (females)
22 pairs autosomes +XY (males)

10

Sexually reproducing organisms have 2 processes to maintain the number of chromosomes

Meiosis and fertilization

11

Synapsis

A pair of homologous chromosomes in a tetrad (4 chromatids) match up during prophase 1 to cross over

12

Prophase 1

Tetrad by pairing non-sister homologous chromosomes then crossing them over

13

Diploid

Normal #of chromosomes (2n=46 in humans)

13

Metaphase 1

Recombinant chromosomes attach to spindle fibers move to middle

13

Anaphase/telophase 1

Homologous recombinant chromosomes separate, sister chromatids (n) then separates again, reduction division-->single chromosomes (n); then regular mitosis begins

15

Morula

Solid ball (cleavage)

16

Interphase 1

Sister chromatids form for each homologous

18

Mitosis diagram using (n)

2n>(4n)>2n+2n

18

Variable n refers to

Homologous pairs

19

Blastula

Hollow ball (cleavage)

21

Autosomes in sex cells for male and for female?

22 pairs autosomes +X (always female, male sometimes)
22 pairs autosomes +Y (male sometimes)

22

Gastrulation

Cells on one side of blastula move in forming gastrula

22

Gonads and processes

Ovaries (female development of egg "oogenesis" 3 bad polar bodies, 1 good egg) testes (male development of sperm "spermatogenesis" 4 sperm)

23

3 other words for sex cell?

Haploid, Monoploid or gametes

24

Sexual vs asexual? (Sexual has...)

2 parents
Offspring unidentical
More fun ;)

25

External fert

In water, more eggs/sperm bc less babies survive harsh environment

26

Internal fert

Mostly on land in moist female body mmm, less eggs still many sperm

27

Parthenogenesis

Development of unfertilized egg into adult ex insects like aphids

28

External development water

Fish/amphibians, yolk, O2 diffuses in waste diffuses out, parents don't give a shit, low survival

29

External development land

Birds/reptiles, yolk, better survival, less eggs

30

Internal development

Embryo grows in mama, high survival

31

Internal placental

Umbilical cord connect fetus to placenta/carries waste, placenta is attached to uterus wall allows movemet of nutrients and air through diffusion/active transport, rich in blood vessels of mama/embryo

32

Internal nonplacental

Pouched mammals/marsupials, food from egg yolk, born before complete development/stays in pouch where gets nutrients from mammary glands (kangarooos)

33

Stem cells

Undifferentiated can be ANYTHING :0

34

Why would doctors use a patients stem cells to grow organs for their transplant?

White blood cells recognize organ, don't have to take immunosuppressants which weaken immune system

35

Stem cells sources

Embryo, cord blood, bone marrow and wisdom teeth from adults

36

Reasons for using stem cells

Growing organs; Alzheimer's, cancer, and other diseases

37

Totipotent stem cells

Can become any type of cell (during early cell division)

38

Pluripotent stem cells

Can differentiate into nearly all cells (just starting to become specialized)

39

Unipotent stem cells

Cells can produce only one cell type, their own, but have the property of self renewal which distinguishes them from non-stem cells ex muscle stem cells

40

iPS

Induced pluripotent stem cells, adult cells have been altered to act like stem cells (first created in 2006 in mice, then created in 2007 in humans)

41

Testes

Gonads that produce sperm, located in scrotum to keep the temperature 1 to 2°C for production and storage (seminiferous tubules/epididymis)

42

Seminiferous tubules

300 to 600 coiled tubes where immature sperm are made

43

Epididymis

Storage area where sperm mature

44

Ducts/Vas Deferens

Passageway from sperm from testes to urethra into penis, can get them blocked if u don't to be another babydaddy

45

Glands

Release secretions to provide a transport for sperm, protect/nourish sperm, (seminal vesicles, cowpeas glands, prostate glands)

46

Semen

Mixture of fluids (from gland) & sperm

47

Testosterone!

Produced in testes to regulate secondary sex characteristics

48

Ovaries

Gonads that meiosis eggs 4x2 cm

49

Follicles

Smells cavities in ovaries where eggs produced, 200,000 in each ovary, all present at birth, each has immature egg, 500 will mature in lifetime

50

Ovulation

Egg matures, follicle moves to surface of ovary and breaks open releasing egg, puts u in bish mode

51

Fallopian tubes

Oviducts, cilia creates current to draw in egg, where (the fun part) fertilization of egg takes place

52

Uterus

Fertilized egg develops, thick walled muscular, cervix: narrow neck sealed off during pregnancy, opens to the V

53

The V

Birth canal (receives seminal fluid)

54

Estrogen & Progesterone

Makes puberty make u hotter, important in menstrual/secondary sex characteristics

55

Fertilization

Fusions of sperm and egg nucleus to form zygote, occurs within 24 hrs after ovulation in oviduct/f.tubes

56

Blastopore

Opening that later becomes opening to digestive system

57

Outer layer/ectoderm forms...

Nervous system and epidermis

58

Middle layer (mesoderm)

Muscles skeleton circulatory system excretory systems reproductive system

59

Inner layer (endoderm)

Lining of digestive and respiratory tracks, liver, and pancreas

60

Fraternal twins

2 eggs 2 sperm

61

Identical twins

1 zygote that separated in half early cleavage

62

Embryo

Fert to 8 weeks

63

Fetus

After 8 weeks

64

Prenatal development

Period b4 birth

65

Placenta

Organ where transfer of materials b/w mother/fetus occurs

66

Umbilical cord

Connects fetus to placenta

67

Amniotic fluid

Protect baby from shock

68

Artificial insemination

If infertile, sperm artificially into female body OR eggs fertilized in woman's body moved to another woman OR egg/sperm both put in Fallopian tube artificially at same time

69

In Vitro fertilization

Fert of egg/ sperm outside body