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Flashcards in Nervous/Endocrine Deck (49):
0

Relationship b/w regulation, homeostasis, and metabolism?

Regulation controls/coordinates Metabolism in order to maintain Homeostasis

2

Similarity b/w nervous and endocrine?

Maintains homeostasis and secretes chemicals (nerves secrete Neurotransmitters while endocrine glands secrete hormones)

3

Differences b/w nervous and endocrine?

Nervous response are rapid, endo response takes long time.
Nerves transmit impulses carried by neurons, hormones carried by plasma

4

Cyton

Cell body of neuron which contains nucleus and organelles

5

Dendrites

Short, highly branched fiber receptors that receive impulses

6

Axon

Long, thin fiber that carries impulses away from cell body

7

Myelin sheath

Fatty later that surrounds axon and allows impulses to be sent quickly (insulator)

8

Terminal branches

Send impulses to next neuron (terminal and dendrite don't TOUCH)

9

Synapses

Gaps between neurons

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Neurotransmitters

Signals released and sent from one neuron to another (specific shape!)

11

Sensory neurons

Carry impulses IN from receptors (SENSES) to spinal cord and brain

12

Interneurons

(Inter=between) relays impulses from one neuron to another in brain/spinal cord

13

Motor neuron

Carry impulses OUT from brain/spinal cord to effectors (muscles or glands)

14

Nerves

Bundle of neurons

15

Normal pathway response?

Stimulus>receptor (sense organ)>sensory neuron>CNS (Interneurons)>motor neuron>effector (muscle or gland)

16

Reflex arc

Stimulus>receptor>sensory neuron>Interneuron (Spinal cord ONLY, no brainer!)>motor neuron>effector (muscle/gland)

17

Cerebrum

Complex thinking

18

Cerebellum

Coordination of VOLUNTARY activities/BALANCE AND CONTROL

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Medulla

INVOLUNTARY (automotive) activities like breathing/heartbeat, top of spinal cord

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Spinal cord

Regulates REFLEXES, carries nerve impulses b/w various parts of body/brain

21

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

All parts of body

22

Somatic nervous system

Controls VOLUNTARY muscles an receives stimuli from sense organs/ transmits them to CNS

23

Automatic nervous system

Controls INVOLUNTARY heart muscles, glands, smooth muscles of digestive organs

24

Endocrine gland

Ductless glands that secrete hormones into bloodstream

25

Gonads

Sex organs (testes/ovaries)

26

Hormones

Chemical produced in one part of an organ and transported to another part

27

Feedback Mechanism

Change in one quantity causes a change in the second quantity which then causes a change in the first

28

Hypothalamus

Portion of the brain that connects the endocrine and nervous system and controls pituitary glands

29

Neuron

Receive, conduct, and send impulses (electrical and chemical messages)

30

pituitary gland

produce more thyroxin, egg development, long bone development. releases TSH FSH GH targets other glands.

31

thyroid

controls rate of metabolism, physical and mental development releases thyroxin and targets all tissues

32

parathyroid

regulates metabolism of calcium and phosphates. releases parathormone. targets bones

33

adrenal

controls heart rate, blood sugar level and blood clotting rate. releases adrenaline (epinephrine) targets heart, pancreas and brain

34

Islets of Langerhand

in pancreas. blood sugar regulation. Releases glucagon and insulin targets all tissues

35

Ovaries

secondary female characteristics. releases estrogen. targets reproductive tissues

36

testes

secondary male characteristics. Releases testosterone. targets reproductive tissues

37

diabetes

improper insulin production. can't regulate blood sugar.

38

goiter

enlargement of thyroid due to insufficient iodine intake

39

dwarfism

can be caused by the pituitary gland not producing enough growth hormone

40

hormones are released by _______ and travel through the _________ to reach _______.

1) gland
2) circulatory tissues
3) target tissues

41

receptor molecules

protein molecules in the cell membrane that can receive chemical messages from other cells (SPECIFIC)
ex) neurotransmitters and neurons/ hormones in blood and target tissue

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feedback

change in "A" --> change in "B" --> change in "A"

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negative feedback

helps to maintain homeostasis ad keeps conditions normal
e.g. body temp regulations, blood sugar regulations, menstrual cycle

44

insulin

lowers blood sugar

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glucagon

increases blood sugar

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blood sugar

spikes and sinks during the day

47

both the endocrine and nervous systems

regulate through chemicals

48

the nervous system

releases neurotransmitters
nerve responses are fast and short
transmits impulses via neurons

49

the endocrine system

releases hormones
responds are slow and last
carried by plasma