Biol 441 Final Flashcards Preview

Spring 2013 > Biol 441 Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biol 441 Final Deck (21):
1

Changes that occur when tadpoles metamorphose into frogs (8)

Tail is lost
Extra set of legs develop
Eyes develop new pigments and nerves, and move to the front of the head
Intestines shorten
Gills are lost
Lungs develop
Nitrogen waste products are changed
Skeleton is changed

2

Examples of metamorphosis (6)

Tadpole → Frog
Caterpillar → Butterfly
Pluteus → Sea urchin
Sea squirt tadpole → sea squirt adult
Bilateral starfish larvae → Radial starfish adult
Fly larvae → Fly adult

3

Thyroxine

Stimulates amphibian metamorphosis
Metabolic hormone in higher vertbrates

4

Ecdysone

Major insect molting hormone
Promotes metamorphosis in insects

5

Juvenile hormone (JH)

Prevents insect metamorphosis

6

Epidermis origin

Ectoderm (surface)

7

Peripheral nervous system origin

Neural crest (ectoderm)

8

Brain origin

Neural tube (ectoderm)

9

Kidney origin

Intermediate mesoderm

10

Cartilage origin

Paraxial mesoderm

11

Heart origin

Lateral plate mesoderm

12

Stomach origin

Endoderm

13

Dermis origin

Paraxial mesoderm

14

Hair origin

Ectoderm (surface)

15

Melanocyte origin

Neural crest (ectoderm)

16

Skeletal muscle origin

Paraxial mesoderm

17

Liver origin

Endoderm

18

Bladder origin

Endoderm

19

Subdivisions of mesoderm (4)

Intermediate
Paraxial
Lateral plate
Notochord

20

Subdivisions of ectoderm (3)

Surface
Neural crest
Neural tube

21

Cancer abnormalities (10)

Glucose uptake is much higher than normal in most cancer cells
MRI images of cancer look abnormal
Acto-myosin cytoskeleton contractions of cancer cells are disorganized and weaker
Cancer cells can crawl onto less adhesive substrates from more adhesive substrates (can oppose haptotaxis)
Defective cell-cycle checkpoint controls
Excessive inhibition of apoptosis
Lack of anchorage dependence
Increase secretion of proteolytic enzymes
Loss of differentiated characteristics
Gain of abnormal combination of gene transcription