Mammalian Final! Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Mammalian Final! Deck (69):
1

Regions of skull (2)

Neurocranium
Facial skeleton

2

Embryological origins of skull (2)

Nerual crest
Mesoderm

3

Ossification types of skull (2)

Endochondral ossification
Intramembranous ossification

4

Phylogenetic origins of skull (3)

Chondrocranium
Splanchnocranium
Dermatocranium

5

Regions of occipital bone (3)

Supraoccipital
Ex-occipitals
Basioccipital

6

Function of occipital series

Protects otic capsule

7

Regions of sphenoid bone (5)

Basisphenoid
Presphenoid
Orbitosphenoid (optic capsule)
Alisphenoid (greater wing)
Pterygoid process

8

Function of sphenoid series

Protects optic cavities

9

Regions of ethmoid bone (3)

Turbinates
Perpendicular plate
Cribiform plate

10

Cribiform plate function

Brain rests on it
Olfactory nerve travels through cribiform foramina

11

Meckel's cartilage
(what is it derived from, what does it contribute to later)

Derived from splanchnocranium
Contributes to mandible in later mammals

12

Splanchnocranium contribution

1st pair of cartilaginous rods becomes jaws
Forms hyoid bone and part of larynx
Contributes to ossicles

13

Phylogenetic skull region with jaw articulation (uniquely to mammals) ((where did it shift from?))

Dermatocranium
Shifted from splanchnocranium; quadrate-articular joint

14

Bones contributing to facial vault in dermatocranium (3)

Frontal
Parietal
Interparietal

15

Bones contributing to facial skeleton in dermatocranium (3)

Maxilla
Nasal
Incisive (premaxilla)

16

Primary palate comes from which phylogenetic region of skull?

Chondrocranium

17

Secondary palate comes from which phylogenetic region of skull? Which bones are responsible?

Dermatocranium
Maxilla fusing together

18

Bones contributing to lateral walls of nasal cavity (4)

Pterygoids
Palatine
Maxilla
Premaxilla

19

Bones contributing to floor (palate) of nasal cavity (3)

Palatine
Maxilla
Premaxilla

20

Bones contributing to median wall of nasal cavity (2)

Vomer
Perpendicular plate

21

Bones contributing to orbital skeleton (5)

Lacrimal
Zygomatic
Palatine
Frontal
Sphenoid

22

Regions of temporal bone (3)

Pterous portion
Squamous portion
Ossicles and styloid

23

Developmental origins of teeth and what each origin contributes (2)

Ectoderm; ridge forms dental lamina
Neural crest; condenses to form dental papillae

24

Tooth cell populations (2)

Ameloblasts
Odontoblasts

25

Tooth materials (4)

Dentine
Enamel
Cementum
Pulp

26

Location of odontoblasts; what they produce

Core of tooth
Produce dentine

27

Location of ameloblasts; what they produce

Outside of tooth
Produce enamel

28

Enamel structure, composition, cellularity

Highly crystalline
Made of hydroxyapetite
Acellular (ameloblasts die after its production)
Hardest structure in vertebrates

29

Dentine structure, composition, cellularity

Tubular
Made of hydroxyapetite with some collagen
Cytoplasmic extensions of odontoblasts responsible for tubes

30

Pulp contribution and origin

Contains blood vessels and nerves
Derived from neural crest

31

Cementum function, composition, and cellularity

Holds tooth in place
Composition similar to bone
Acellular near crown, but cellular at apex

32

Bradydont teeth (shape and animals they're found in)

Short
Found in not-herbivores

33

Hypsodont teeth (shape, animals they're found in, and distinguishing feature)

High-crowning
Found in herbivores
Crown covered by cementum; wears down with age

34

Thecodont teeth (distinguishing feature, what they allow for)

Teeth with well-defined sockets
Alveolar bones create sockets
Distinguishing feature of mammals
Allow for precise occlusion; crushing and shearing

35

Tricodont teeth (what are they, where are they found)

Teeth with 3 cusps
Found in early, non-heterodont animals

36

Tribosphenic teeth (what are they, what do they confer)

Triangular teeth with 3 cusps on different planes
Giver staggered occlusion, teeth mesh together well

37

Feature of upper tribosphenic teeth (1)

3 cusps referred to as trigon

38

Features of lower tribosphenic teeth (2)

3 cusps referred to as trigonid
Additional shelf jutting out is talonid

39

Where are rootless teeth found? what does rootless mean?

Found in rodents
Pulp cavity remains open throughout life

40

Diphydonts (what they are, what it's good for)

Animals who get 2 sets of teeth
True molars aren't replaced
Defining feature of mammals
Adaptation for growing cranium

41

Heterdonts

Specialization between teeth (i.e. molars AND incisors AND canines)
Only found in larger mammals

42

Labial

side of teeth facing lips

43

Lingual

side of teeth facing oral cavity

44

Mesial

towards face

45

Distal

towards back of mouth

46

Dental formula order

canines:incisors:molars:pre-molars

47

Edentate

no teeth

48

Action of molars in carnivores

shearing

49

Structure for filter-feeding in whales

bayleen

50

Action of molars in herbivores

grinding

51

Only mastication muscle found in non-mammals

Adductor mandibulae

52

Bones composing jaw in earlier mammals

Dentary
Angular
Surangular
(all dermatocranium)

53

Symphyseal surface

site of fusion between dentary bones

54

Nerve innervating jaw (and sensory, motor, or mixed?)

V3 Mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve
mixed

55

Name of sensory part of V3 mandibular nerve (and where does it travel?)

inferior alveolar
travels inside body of mandible

56

Site of Novocaine injection

mandibular foramen

57

Alternative name for TMJ

dentary-squamosal joint

58

TMJ type of joint

synovial

59

What separates two articular surfaces of TMJ

articular disc

60

What jaw feature limits protrusion and retraction

rostral and caudal tubercules

61

Types of jaw movement (4)

protrusion
retraction
elevation
depression

62

Progression of jaw joint types

from quadrate-articular to temporomandibular

63

Role of quadrate and articular bones in current mammals

middle ear bones

64

Herbivory jaw adaptations (2)

very large masseter
TMJ lies well above occlusal plane

65

Carnivory jaw adaptations (2)

large temporalis to generate shearing force
TMJ lies close to occlusal plane

66

Optic nerve II (sensory, motor, or both)

sensory

67

Occulomotor nerve III (sensory, motor, or both? where does it enter skull from? what does it do?

motor
passes through superior orbital fissure
somatic innervation: to all the extrinsic eye muscles except lateral rectus and superior oblique)
visceral innervation: to ciliary body and sphincter pupillae

68

Trochlear nerve IV (sensory, motor or both? and to what?)

motor
to superior oblique

69

Abducens nerve VI (sensory, motor or both? and to what?)

motor
to lateral rectus