Biological Diversity Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biological Diversity Deck (48):
1

Taxonomy

A system by which we name & classify all organisms, living & extinct

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Binomial Nomenclature

System used today by Carl von Linne, every organism has 2-part name

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Domains

Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

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Four kingdoms of Eukarya

Protista
Fungi: yeast, mold, mushrooms
Plantae: mosses, ferns, flowering plants
Animalia

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Evolutionary Trends in Animals

Specialized Cells, Tissues & Organs
Germ Layers
Body Symmetry
Development of Head
Body Cavity Formation

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Tissue

Group of similar cells that perform one function
Sciatic nerve

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Organ

Group of issues that work together to perform related functions

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Germ Layers

Main layers, form various tissues & organs of the body, formed in embryonic development

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Ectoderm

Outermost layer, becomes skin & nervous system
Nerve cord + brain

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Endoderm

Innermost layer, becomes viscera (guts) or digestive system

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Mesoderm

Middle layer, becomes blood, muscles & bones

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Coelom

A fluid-filled body cavity that is completely surrounded by mesoderm tissue
Provides space for elaborate organ systems
Ex: digestive tract or cardiovascular system

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Porifera

Sponges

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Cnidarians

Hydra & Jellyfish

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Platyhelminthes

Flatworms including Tapeworms

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Nematodes

Roundworms

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Annelids

Segmented Worms like Earthworms, Leeches

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Mollusks

Squids, Octopuses, Slugs, Clams, and Snails

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Arthropods

Insecta (Grasshopper), Crustacea (Shrimp, crab), Arachnida (Spider)

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Echinoderms

Sea Stars (Starfish) & Sea Urchins

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Chordates

Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals

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Cladogram/polygenetic Tree

Diagrammatic representation of the evolutionary history that all living things evolve from the last universal common ancestor (LUCA)

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Taxa

Levels of organization in system of classification;
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

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Extremophiles

Organisms that live in extreme environments
Make up domain Archaea

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Three-Domain System

Based on DNA analysis, reflects evolutionary history & the relationships among organisms
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

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Decomposer

Organisms that play a vital role in the ecosystem & that recycle dead organic matter
Bacteria & Fungi

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Pathogen

Organism that causes disease

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Genetic Engineering

Branch of science that uses recombinant DNA techniques for practical purposes

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Conjugation

A primitive form of sexual reproduction where individuals exchange genetic material

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Methanogens
Extremophile

Organisms that obtain energy in a unique way by producing methane from hydrogen

31

Halophiles
Extremophile

Organisms that thrive in environments with high salt concentrations like Utah's Great Salt Lake

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Thermophiles
Extremophiles

Organisms that thrive in very high temperature, like in hot springs in Yellowstone Park

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Saprobes

Organisms that obtain food from decaying organic matter

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Pioneer Organisms

The first to colonize a barren environment in primary ecological succession

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Cell

Basic unit of all forms of life

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Mesoglea

The middle layer of a 2-layered animal, which holds the 2 layers together

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Tripoblastic

Animal consisting of 3 cell layers
Every animal more sophisticated than flatworms

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Pseudocoelomate

An animal with a false coelom
Fluid-filled tube between endoderm & mesoderm that support the animal

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Acoelomate

An animal that has no true coelom

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Gastrovascular Cavity

Glastrocoel, primitive digestive tract
Hydra

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Hermaphrodites

Organisms that contain both female & male sex organs

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Shared Traits

Those that organisms have in commmon

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Derived Traits

New characteristics or innovations that are not shared with ancestor

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Decomposer Fungi

Secrets enzymes that breaks down & absorb nutrients from non living organic material

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Mutualist Fungi

Help plants absorb nutrients especially phosphates by breaking them down more efficiently than the roots can themselves, mycorrihaze

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Predatory Fungi

Capture prey

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Parasitic Fungi

Feed on living organisms without killing them

48

Segmentation

Repetition of anatomically identical units that can be added to and modified for different purposes as animals evolve