Molecular Genetics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Molecular Genetics Deck (17):
1

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Double helix shaped like twisted ladder
2 complementary strands running against each other
It is a polymer made of nucleotides

2

Semi-conservative

One old & one new strand

3

Telomeres

Special nonsense nucleotide sequences at ends of chromosomes that repeat thousands of times
Ends that protect DNA during cell division

4

Messenger RNA

Carries messages from DNA in nucleus to cytoplasm during the making of proteins

5

Codons

Triplet nucleotides of mRNA

6

Transfer RNA

Carries amino acids to mRNA at ribosome to form polypeptide

7

Anticodons

Triplet nucleotides of tRNA
Complementary to codons of mRNA

8

Ribosomal RNA

It is structural, makes up ribosomes along with proteins

9

Protein Synthesis

Process by which DNA makes proteins
3 main steps: transcription, RNA processing, translation

10

Transcription

The process by which DNA makes mRNA
Occurs in nucleus

11

Translation

The process by which the mRNA sequence is converted into an amino acid sequence (proteins)
Occurs in ribosomes

12

Mutations

Changes in genetic material, it is the raw material for natural selection

13

Point Mutation

Type of gene mutation
A base-pair substitution where 1 nucleotide converts to another
THE FAT CAT SAW THE DOG -> THE FAT CAT SAW THE HOG

14

Insertion/deletion

Type of gene mutations
A mutation where 1 nucleotide inserts itself/is lost in existing strand
These mutations result in frame shift, because entire reading frame is altered & unreadable

15

Chromosome Mutations

Alterations in chromosome number or structure

16

Aneuploidy

Having any abnormal condition of the chromosomes
Trisomy-21, extra chromosome 21

17

Polyploidy

Having entire extra sets of chromosomes
Like 3n or 4n