Cell Division Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cell Division Deck (15):
1

Mitosis

Functions in growth & repair of body cells
Produces 2 daughters cells, each is a diploid (2n)

2

Meiosis

Occurs only in sexually reproducing organisms
Produces gametes, each is a haploid (n)

3

Chromosome

Consist of highly coiled & condensed strand of DNA

4

Sister chromatids

Replicated chromosome consist of 2 of these, exact copies of each other

5

Centromere

Specialised region that holds the 2 sister chromatids together

6

Cell cycle

Regular sequence of growth & division that all living & dividing cells pass through, regulated by proteins

7

Stem cells

From human embryos, retain the ability to divide indefinitely & to differentiate into any cell type

8

Internal regulators

Proteins in cell cycle that make sure that cell doesn't undergo mitosis until certain conditions are met

9

External regulators

Proteins, growth factors, of cell cycle; speed up, slow down, or even stop cell cycle

10

Interphase

Chromosomes replicate in preparation for cell division, 3 sub phases; G1, S, G2

11

Cytokinesis

Division of cytoplasm
Animals cells: cleavage furrow forms down middle of cell
Plant cells: cell plate forms down middle of cells, daughter cells do not separate but instead a sticky middle lame,,a cements adjacent cells together

12

Prophase

Replicated DNA undergoes supercoiling
Spindle fibers start to form
Nuclear Envelope breaks down

13

Metaphase

Spindle fiber network completed
Spindle fibers attach to centromeres
Chromosomes move to equator of cell

14

Anaphase

Centromeres split
Spindle fibers contract
Chromosomes pulled to opposite poles

15

Telophase

Chromosomes uncoil
Spindle fibers break down
Nuclear envelope reforms