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Biology > Plants > Flashcards

Flashcards in Plants Deck (92):
1

Bryophytes

Primitive plants that lack vascular tissue & must live in moist environments as they need to absorb & transport water by osmosis
Mosses, liverworts, hornworts

2

Gymnosperm

Tracheophyte with seeds
Conifers with modifications to resist wind, cold & drought

3

Angiosperms

Tracheophyte with seeds
Flowering plants
Subdivided into monocots & dicots

4

Monocotyledons

Grasses; wheat, corn, oats, lawn grass, rice

5

Dicotyledons

Daisies, roses, carrots & most flowering plants
Oak, walnut, cherry & most trees

6

Primary Growth

The elongation of plant into soil & up into air
3 Zones; cell division, elongation, differentiation

7

Zone of Cell Division

Contains meristem cells that are dividing & responsible for producing new cells that grow down into soil

8

Zone of Elongation

Cells elongate & push root cap downward & deeper into soil

9

Zone of Differentiation

Cells undergo specialisation into 3 primary meristems that give rise to 3 tissue systems in plant; epidermis, ground tissue, xylem & phloem

10

Secondary Growth

Lateral growth or an increase in girth
Woody plants, responsible for enlargement of trunk

11

Epidermis

Covers entire surface of root & is modified to absorption

12

Cortex

Storage, consists of parenchyma cells containing plastids for storage of starch, etc.

13

Stele

Transport

14

Endoderm

Select what minerals enter vascular cylinder (stele) & body of plant

15

Apoplast

Network of cells walls & intercellular spaces within plant body
Permits extracellular movement of water within plant

16

Symplast

Continuous system of cytoplasm of cells

17

Mycorrhizae

Supply water & minerals to older regions of roots of plant that lack root hairs

18

Rhizobium

Fixes nitrogen gas from air into form of nitrogen plant requires

19

Taproot

Single, large root that gives rise to lateral branch roots

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Fibrous Root System

Holds plant firmly in place

21

Adventitious Roots

Roots that arise above ground; aerial & prop roots

22

Aerial Roots

Type of adventitious
Trees growing in swamps or marshes have aerial roots that stick up out of water to aerate root cells
English Ivy - clings to building

23

Prop Roots

Roots that grow aboveground out from base of stem to help support plant, like corn

24

Stems

Allow leaves to receive most light
Transport water & minerals from soil, & nutrients from leaves to rest of plant

25

Waxy Cuticle

Part of leaf
Made of cutin, minimize water loss

26

Guard Cells

Part of leaf
Modified epidermal cells that contain chloroplasts
Control opening of stomates in response to change in water pressure

27

Palisade Mesophyll

Tightly packed, photosynthesis

28

Spongy Mesophyll

Loosely packed, photosynthesis
Diffusion & exchange of gases into & out of these cells

29

Veins

Part of leaf, located in mesophyll
Carry water & nutrients from soil to leaves & carry sugar from leaves to rest of plant

30

Dermal Tissue

Outer protective covering of plants, usually consists of signle layer of epidermal cells

31

Vascular Tissue

Transports water & nutrients up & down plant
Xylem & phloem

32

Ground Tissue

Makes up all plant tissues besides dermal & vascular tissues
3 cell types; parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma

33

Xylem

Support plant & transport water & nutrients
No energy required

34

Phloem

Carry sugar from photosynthetic leaves to rest of plant by translocation
Requires energy

35

Vegetative Propagation

Asexual reproduction in a plant where a piece of root, stem, or leaf produces an entirely new plant genetically identical to parent plant
Ex: grafting, cuttings, bulbs, runners

36

Petals

Brightly colored, modified leaves
Attract animals that will pollinate plant

37

Sepals

Green, resemble leaves
Enclose bud before it opens & protect flower as it develops

38

Pistils/Carpels

Female part of flower
Produce female gametophyte; each consists of 4, 6, 7

39

Ovary

Swollen part of pistil
Contains ovule where 1/more ova are produced by meiosis

40

Ovule

Within ovary where ova (female gametophyte) are produced

41

Style

Long, usually thin stalk of the pistil

42

Stigma

Sticky top of style where pollen lands & germinates

43

Stamen

Male part of flower
Made up of anther & filament

44

Anther

Male part of flower
Where sperm (pollen) are produced by meiosis

45

Filament

Threadlike structure
Supports anther

46

Antheridium

Alternation of Generations
Produce sperm, develops on gametophyte

47

Archegonium

Alternation of Generations
Produce eggs, develops on gametophyte

48

Gametophyte

A haploid adult plant

49

Megaspores

Alternation of Generations
Produced by large female cones
Will develop into female gametophytes

50

Microspores

Alternation of Generations
Produced by small male cones
Will develop into male gametophyte or pollen grains

51

Protonema

Alternation of Generations
Branching, 1-celled-thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores
Becomes gametophyte in moss

52

Sporangia

Alternation of Generations
Located on tip of mature sporophyte
Where meiosis occurs, producing haploid spores

53

Sporophyte

A diploid adult plant

54

Sori

Alternation of Generations
Raised spots located on underside of sporophyte ferns, clusters of sporangia

55

Auxins

Growth hormones in plants that are responsible for phototropisms & apical dominance, the preferential growth of a plant upward (toward sun) rather than laterally

56

Gibberellins

Plant hormones that promote stem & leaf elongation
Broccoli

57

Ethylene

Gaseous plant hormone that promotes fruit ripening

58

Abscisic acid (ABA)

Plant hormone that inhibits growth & promotes seed dormancy
Enables plant to withstand drought

59

Tropism

The growth of a plant toward/away from a stimulus
Touch, gravity, light

60

Phototropisms

Result from unequal distribution of auxins that accumulate on side of plant away from light as auxins cause growth, cells on shady side of plant enlarge & stem bends toward light

61

Geotropism

Result from interaction of auxins & statoliths, specialized plastids containing dense starch grains\

62

Trachephytes

Have transport vessels, include ancient seedless plants that reproduce by spores & also modern plants that reproduce by seeds

63

Plants

Multicelled, eukaryotic, photosynthetic autotrophs

64

Positive Tropism

Growth toward stimulus

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Negative Tropism

Growth away from stimulus

66

Gametangia

In primitive plants, a protective jacket of cells in which gametes & zygotes develop & which prevents drying out

67

Sporopollenin

Tough polymer that is resistant to almost all kinds of environmental damage & that protects plants in a harsh terrestrial environment
Found in walls of spores & pollen

68

Meristem Tissue

Plant tissue that is always dividing

69

Apical Meristem

Constantly dividing growth layer located at buds of shoots & tips of roots

70

Roots

Absorb nutrients from the soil, anchor the plant & store food

71

Parenchyma Cells

Have primary cell wall that is thin & flexible, they lack a secondary wall

72

Collenchyma Cells

Have unevenly thickened primary cell walls but lack secondary cell walls

73

Sclerenchyma Cells

Have thick primary & secondary cell walls that are fortified with lignin

74

Casparian Strip

Continuous band of waxy material that is impervious to water & dissolved minerals
Wraps around endoderm cell

75

Vascular Bundles

Vascular tissue that runs the length of stem in strands
Each bundle contains xylem on inside, phloem on inside & meristem tissue between

76

Leaf

Organized to maximize sugar production while minimizing water loss

77

Stomates

Openings in leaves to exchange photosynthetic gases; water vapor, carbon dioxde, oxygen

78

Transpiration

Loss of water (evaporation) from a leaf through stomates

79

Trichomes

Tiny, spikelike projections on some leaves for protection

80

Cohesion

Water molecules are attracted to each other & stick together

81

Transpirational pull-cohesion tension theory

For each molecule of water that evaporates from a leaf by transpiration, another molecule of water is drawn in at the root to replace it

82

Translocation

A fragment of a chromosome becomes attached to a non-homologous chromosome

83

Hypocotyl

Becomes lower part of the stem & the roots

84

Epicotyl

Becomes the upper part of the stem

85

Radicle (Embryonic Root)

First organ to emerge from the germinating seed

86

Alternation of Generations

Haploid (n) & diploid (2n) generation alternate with each other

87

Endosperm

Food for the growing embryo in a monocot seed
Cells that make up the endosperm are triploid (3n)

88

Alternation of Generations (Mosses & other Bryophytes)

Gametophyte generation dominates life cycle, sporophyte is dependent on the gametophyte

89

Alternation of Generations (Ferns)

Sporophyte generation is larger & is independent from gametophyte
Sustain themselves

90

Alternation of Generations (Seed Plants)

Gametophyte generation exists inside the sporophyte generation & is totally dependent on sporophyte

91

Plant Hormones

Help coordinate growth, development & response to environmental stimuli

92

Cytokinins

Plant hormones that stimulate cell division & cytokinesis
Delay aging