The Human Immune System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in The Human Immune System Deck (30):
1

1st Line of Defense

Nonspecific Defense
Barrier that helps prevent pathogens from entering the body

2

2nd Line of Defense

Nonspecific Defense
Limit spread of invaders before specific immune responses
3 types

3

Inflammatory Response

2nd Line of Defense
Swelling, redness, soreness, increased warmth in area

4

Phagocytes

2nd Line of Defense
Gobble up invading microbes
Macrophages (wbc) engulf microbes with pseudopods

5

Interferons

2nd Line of Defense
Chemicals released by immune system to block against viral infections

6

3rd Line of Defense

Specific Defense
Consists of lymphocytes that originate in the bone marrow

7

B Lymphocytes

Produce antibodies against specific antigen
Humoral Response

8

T Lymphocytes

Fight pathogens by hand-to-hand combat
Cell-mediated response

9

Antigens

Anything that triggers an antibody response

10

Antibody

Immunoglobins
Each antibody can bind to only 1 antigen forming antigen-antibody complex that can be gobbled up by a phagocyte

11

Clonal Selection

Fundamental mechanism in development of immunity
Selected lymphocyte proliferates (clones 1000s of copies) & differentiates into plasma & memory cells

12

Plasma Cells

Fight antigens immediately
Do no live long

13

Memory Cells

Fight same antigens as plasma cells but remain circulating in blood in small amounts for a lifetime

14

Immunological Memory

Capacity of immune system to generate a secondary response
Vattenkoppor

15

Passive Immunity

Temporary
Antibodies = borrowed, do not survive for long

16

Active Immunity

Permanent
You make antibodies yourself after being ill & recovering, or after given immunization/vaccine

17

Cross-Match

Before blood transfusion, recipient's & donor's blood is mixed to ensure compatibility

18

Allergies

Hypersensitive immune responses to certain substances
Involve release of histamines, taking antihistamines to counteract symptoms

19

Histamines

Triggers vasodilation which increase blood supply to area, bringing more phagocytes to gobble up germs

20

Antibiotics

CURE
Medicines that kill bacteria/fungi
Administered after person is sick & cure the disease

21

Vaccines

PREVENT
Prevent viral infections as there is no cure
New treatments & vaccines are always developed

22

Autoimmune Diseases

Caused by mistake of immune system
System can't distinguish between self & nonself, instead it perceives certain structures in body as foreign & produce antibodies to attack

23

Pathogens

Organisms that cause disease

24

Nonspecific Defense

Attack anything foreign

25

Specific Defense

Identify certain invading cells & attack them specifically

26

Vasodilation

Enlargement of blood vessels

27

Universal Donor

Blood type O
Has no blood cell antigens to be clumped by the recipient's blood

28

Universal Recipient

Blood type AB
No antibodies to clump the donor's blood

29

Primary Immune Response

When an antigen comes in contact to the immune system for the first time
Plasma Cells

30

Secondary Immune Response

Second time a person is exposed to the same antigen as in PIR (primary immune response)
At this point immunological memory has been established
Memory Cells