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Flashcards in Biology of Addiction Deck (21)
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1
Q

What three structures in the brain are involved in the mesolimbic dopamine system (reward pathway)?

A

Ventral Tegmental Area
Nucleus Accumbens
Projections to medial pre-frontal cortex

2
Q

Which part of the brain releases dopamine when you use an addictive substance?

A

Nucleus Accumbens

3
Q

What is unique about amphetamines as an abusive substance?

A

Amphetamine use causes 1000x the amount of dopamine release than normal.

Cocaine = 300x 
Nicotine = 200x
4
Q

What is the role of MAO?

A

Degrades neurotransmitters

5
Q

Order the 5 routes of drug administration from fastest delivery to slowest.

A

Inhalation
Injection
Snorting/snuffing
Ingestion

6
Q

What is the mechanism of THC’s action?

A

Binding to cannabinoid receptors.

7
Q

What is the mechanism of heroin action?

A

Binding to opioid receptors.

8
Q

What is the mechanism of nicotine action?

A

Binding to A4B2 nicotinic (ACh) receptors in the ventral tegmental area = increased release of DA in the n. accumbens

9
Q

What is the mechanism of caffeine action?

A

Prevents adenosine binding

10
Q

What is the mechanism of both cocaine and amphetamine action?

A

Blocks dopamine reuptake.

11
Q

What is the mechanism of action for LSD?

A

Both an agonist and antagonist.

12
Q

What has new evidence shown about the activation of certain parts of the brain in addiction?

A

On top of the reward pathway being activated, other brain systems seem to be activated as well with repeated substance use.

13
Q

What are some environmental factors that contribute to addiction?

A
Stress
Early abuse
Witnessing violence
Peers who use drugs
Availability of drugs
14
Q

Recent evidence has shown that __% of risk of addiction is genetic?

A

50%

15
Q

It was shown in experiments that the number of DA receptors a person had correlated to how much they liked or disliked a drug. True or False?

A

True.

People with a high number of dopamine receptors said the drug was unpleasant.

16
Q

There are 11 criteria for the diagnosis of substance use disorder. What are the number of criteria that need to be met to be categorized as mild, moderate, or severe?

A
Mild = 2-3
Moderate = 4-5
Severe = > 6
17
Q

Your patient has been a long time alcohol abuser. What would you see on an MRI image of the brain?

A

Brain atrophy + Increased ventricle size

18
Q

What effect does MDMA (ecstasy) have in the CNS?

A

Selectively destroys your serotonin neurons.

19
Q

What are the advantages to using partial agonists in treating addiction? (3)

A

Reduce craving for it and withdrawal
Reduce dependence potential (not a full effect)
Can act as a competitive inhibitor to the actual drug if taken

20
Q

Buprenorphine is a partial antagonist for treating what type of withdrawal?

A

Opioid withdrawal.

Hard to overdose because of ceiling effect.

21
Q

How does varenicline (chantix) work in nicotine addiction treatment?

A

It is a partial agonist of A4B2 nicotinic receptors and a competitive inhibitor of nicotine itself.