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Flashcards in CNS tumors Deck (16)
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1
Q

What are the 2 major diffuse gliomas?

A

Astrocytoma & Oligodendroglioma

2
Q

List 2 major childhood brain tumors.

A

Pilocytic Astrocytoma & Medulloblastoma

3
Q

What are the 4 major adult intracranial tumor types?

A

Glioblastoma Multiforme
Meningioma
Oligodendroglioma

4
Q

What are the most common primary tumor sites that metastasize to the brain?

A

LUNGS
kidney
breast

5
Q

What is the major pathologic mechanism for paraneoplastic syndrome?

A

Antibodies are formed against tumor antigens or tumors secrete cytokines and other factors. Immune tolerance is broken and antibodies begin to attack normal tissues.

Cerebellar degeneration: purkinjee neurons attacked (ataxia)
Limbic encephalitis: dementia and severe memory loss

6
Q

What is the mechanism behind tuberous sclerosis.

A

Mutation in TSC1 or TSC2 gene. Loss of mTOR regulation means increased cell growth.

Often see Hamartomas and benign neoplasms of the brain. Can lead to seizures

7
Q

What is the mechanism behind VHL disease?

A

Mutation of VHL tumor suppressor leads to unregulated HIF expression. Leads to increased VEGF and EPO.

Increased EPO leads to paraneoplastic polycythemia.
Hemangioblastomas in cerebellum and eye can be seen (highly vascular tumors).

8
Q

What types of tumors can be found in NF1 patients?

A

Neurofibromas of the spinal nerves within the dura.

9
Q

What types of tumors can be found in NF2 patients?

A

Bilateral accoustic schwannomas.

Associated with tinitus, loss of balance, and deafness. Often in children.

10
Q

What type of NF is Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor found in? (MPNST)

A

NF1

11
Q

What physical sign would be apparent with either a pituitary adenoma or a craniopharyngioma?

A

Bitemporal Hemianopsia

12
Q

What disease would you see secondary to ACTH producing cell cancer?

A

Cushings Syndrome

13
Q

What disease would you see secondary to a pituitary adenoma producing GH?

A

Acromegaly

Gigantism

14
Q

What disease would you see secondary to a pituitary adenoma producing PRL?

A

Galactorrhea, amenorrhea, infertility

15
Q

What disease would you see secondary to a pituitary adenoma producing TSH?

A

Hyperthyroidism

16
Q

What disease would you see secondary to a pituitary adenoma producing FSH/LH?

A

Hypergonadism

Hypopituitarism