Biology of Mood Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology of Mood Disorders Deck (20)
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1
Q

What regions of the brain are implicated in depression?

A

Hippcampus and Prefrontal cortex (Cognitive abnormalities, hoplessness, worthelessness), Amygdala (anxiety and fear), Nucleus acumbens (Anhedonia), Hypothalamus (Neurovegetative sx)

2
Q

What is increased in volume and what is decreased in volume in depression?

A

Increased: Ventricles

Decreased: Caudate, basal ganglia, hippocampus, frontal cortex, gyrus rectus

3
Q

What anatomical finding correlates to MDD/anxiety?

A

Thinner left ccortex

4
Q

What cortical areas are thicker in MDD?

A

Orbitofrontal and subgenual cortex

5
Q

What region is responsible for attention and sensory processing in the brain? Is it activated or deactivated in MDD?

A

Anterior cingulate cortex

Deactivated

6
Q

What are anatomical findings in PTSD patients?

A

Smaller hippocampus and pregenual cingulate cortex

7
Q

What key region is hyperactive in OCD?

A

Head of the caudate

8
Q

What are children with a recent GBS infection at risk for?

A

PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Strep); OCD behaviors common

9
Q

How is neuronal activity affected in Panic Disorder?

A

Fewer GABA receptors–> Increased activity

10
Q

How are NT levels affected in Depression, Mania, and Anxiety (supporting the Monoamine Hypothesis)?

A

Depression: Decreased 5-HT, dopamine, and NE
Mania: Increased Dopamine
Anxiety: Decreased GABA, increased NE, altered 5-HT

11
Q

What mechanism is impaired in MDD according to the HPA (Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal) Axis Hypothesis?

A

Glucocorticoid feedback mechanism

12
Q

How does neurogenesis play a role in antidepressant actions?

A

BDNF-mediated increase in dendritic branching and synapse number

13
Q

How does ketamine provide antidepressant effects?

A

Increase AMPA (GluR1) receptor levels (correlating with the finding that reduced Glutamate neurotransmission causes depression)

14
Q

How do cytokines play a role in depression?

A

Increased through stress, inflammation, infection, or immunotherapy, and causing alteration in monamines, activating HPA axis, and possibly directly affecting neurons

15
Q

How is estrogen related to depression?

A

Reduced in women with depression

16
Q

How does maternal care affect depression?

A

Increased glucocorticoid receptor expression, possible decreased risk for depression

17
Q

Name an epigenetic mechanism that could play a role in depression.

A

Stress–> Increased histone and DNA methylation –> Reduced transcription of antidepressant genes –> Increased risk of depression

18
Q

Why do histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC inhibitors) have antidepressant effects?

A

Histone acetylation promotes transcription

19
Q

How does ECT treat depression and what is a side effect?

A

Increased neurogenesis and 5HT receptors (through grand mal seizure)

Side effect: Retrograde Amnesia

20
Q

What main brain region does Deep Brain Stimulation target?

A

Subgenual Cingulate Cortex (Cg25)