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Flashcards in Block 3 Neuro Deck (76)
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1

3 genes associated with ALS

SODI, UBQLN2, and C9ORF72

2

Riluzole-

decreases glutamate response to prolong life in ALS

3

Patient presents with early falls, axial rigidity, supranuclear gaze palsy (vertical more than horizontal) and hummingbird's sign. What do they have?

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

4

assymetric parkinsonism associated with tau protein deposition =

Corticobasal Ganglionic Degeneration

5

most common genetic mutation in parkinsons =

LRRK2

6

Rasagiline-

selective MAO-B inhibitor

7

MAO-B degrades _________

dopamine

8

MAO-A degrades ________

serotonin and NE

9

MS usually first presents with

optic neuritis

10

Dawson's fingers-

lesions lining up perpendicular to ventricles; suggestive of demyelination rather than vascular lesion. indicative of MS

11

Causes of MS-

T cells, genetics, Vitamin D deficiency, and Epstein Barr Virus

12

Which T cells are responsible for MS

Th1 (pro-inflammatory)

13

How do Interferon B and glatiramer acetate treat MS?

increase Th2 count

14

how does Fingolimod treat MS?

sequester T cells to lymph nodes

15

Tysabri, the strongest MS drug, works how?

prevents T cells from crossing the BBB

16

RAS is mediated by what NTs?

acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, NE, and histamine

17

pathway for ipGRC's

SCN-PVN-thoracic spinal cord-IMLCC-sympathetic chain-superior cervical ganglion-pineal gland

18

locus coeruleus/lateral tegmental group-

NE neurons located in pons

19

pedunculopontine/laterodorsal tegmental (PPT/LDT)-

cholinergic neurons, project to thalamus

20

dorsal/medial raphe and raphe pontis nucleus-

serotoninergic neurons in midbrain

21

ventral periaqueductal gray matter/VTA/subs nigra-

dopaminergic

22

tuberomamillary nucleus-

histaminergic

23

orexin comes from?

lateral hypothalamic area

24

when melatonin feeds back into the SCN, the SCN can either cause wakefulness by signaling the _______, or sleep, by signaling __________

lateral hypothalamic area
ventrolateral preoptic nucleus

25

what stimulates RAS?

Lateral hypothalamic area

26

the sensory thalamus is sensitized by activation of its:

nicotinic receptors

27

the reticular thalamus is inhibited by the activation of its:

muscarinic receptors

28

waves associated with awake state

alpha and beta

29

Stage 1 sleep waves

theta

30

stage 2 sleep waves

sleep spindles/ K complexes