Block 4 neuro part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Block 4 neuro part 2 Deck (203)
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1

positive symptoms that can be expressed in cerebral palsy

hypertonia, clonus, babinski sign

2

clonus-

increased muscular contraction

3

negative sympotms of cerebral palsy-

paresis and loss of dexterity

4

spasticity-

velocity and direction dependent resistance to stretch in a limb

5

dystonia-

sustained muscle contractions causing twisting repetitive movements, abnormal postures, or both

6

most common CP is

spastic

7

if a baby is full term with very low birth weight and develops CP with a combo of dystonia and spasticity, what CP does he likely have?

spastic quadriparesis

8

if an infant had a vascular injury and developed CP, which CP does he probably have?

hemiparesis

9

If a premature baby develops CP, which kind does he likely have?

spastic diplegia

10

if a full term baby that is hypotonic at birth develops CP, what kind does he probably have?

dyskinetic CP

11

main goal in treatment of CP is to treat the _______

lack of inhibition

12

if a CP child presents with hemiplegia, what is the best treatment?

focal medication such as botulinum toxin

13

if a CP child has spasticity and dystonia, poor underlying strength, what kind of treatment would you give her?

systemic treatment, such as baclofen

14

baclofen is a _____ agonist

GABAb. enhances GABA function, relieving the spasticity affecting all the muscles

15

if i child has good muscle control and strength, but suffers from spasticity, they may be a good candidate for what surgery?

selective dorsal rhizotomy

16

if i child has good muscle control and strength, but suffers from spasticity, they may be a good candidate for what surgery?

selective dorsal rhizotomy

17

non associative learning-

behavior modification based on a single stimulus

18

sensitization-

increase in response to a stimulus following a novel, strong or noxious stimulus

19

how does dishabituation/sensitization work?

modulatory neuron releases 5HT on habituated neuron, causing cAMP synthesis --> PKA activation--> K+ channel closure--> longer depolarization--> greater Ca++ influx--> greater NT release--> greater respone

20

associative learning-

learning the relation between multiple stimuli

21

pre-syaptic condition relies on pairing ______ with ______

conditioned stimulus with unconditioned stimulus

22

Why does a conditioned stimulus need to be paired with an unconditioned stimulus to maximize response in presynaptic terminal?

Ca++-Calmodulin enhances adenylate cyclase, so if 5HT (US) binds without the conditioned stimulus, only some cAMP will be made, but if the CS also happens, Ca++ influx occurs and binds with Calmodulin, enhancing cAMP synthesis. With more cAMP, more PKA will be activated and more NT will subsequently be released

23

NMDA receptors need 2 things to be activated:

glutamate binding and depolarization of the cell (to dislodge Mg++)

24

what happens during early LTP?

NMDA receptors open after Mg++ is dislodged, then more AMPA receptors are inserted into postsynaptic membrane

25

what happens during late LTP?

Ca++ calmodulin binding activates CaCM kinase, which causes insertion of more NMDA receptors in the membrane, as well as other transcriptional modifications

26

what activates CREB?

cAMP

27

overall, amount of ___ entering post synaptic membrane causes LTP

Ca++

28

semantic memory-

recalling knowledge

29

______ lobe plays a critical role in declarative memory

medial temporal

30

______ lobe plays a critical role in declarative memory

medial temporal