Blood and Hematopoeisis Flashcards Preview

F16: Anatomy Test 3 > Blood and Hematopoeisis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood and Hematopoeisis Deck (53):
1

What is the total volume of blood?

6 L or p 7-8% total body weight

2

What are the functions of blood?

- Delivery of O2 to cells and removal of CO2 and waste
- transport of hormones and regulatory substances
- maintenance of homeostasis: buffer and coagulation/thermoregulation
- protective: transport of immune cells

3

What are the two major components of blood?

1. Formed elements: RBCs, WBCs, platelets

2. Plasma: matrix

4

What are the different layers of centrifuged blood?

Top light layer: plasma (55%)

Bottom red layers: RBCs (45%)

Middle thin buffy layer: WBCs and platelets (< 1%)

5

___________ is the volume of packed RBCs in a sample of blood.

Hematocrit

6

_______ accounts for over 90% of plasma.

Water

7

__________ accounts for roughly 7-8% of plasma.

Plasma proteins (albumin, globulins, fibrinogen)

8

_________ accounts for a mere 1-2% of plasma.

Other solutes (electrolytes, etc.)

9

T/F: Erythrocytes contain a nucleus, but no other organelles.

FALSE.

No nucleus, and missing typical organelles

10

What is the major function of erythrocytes?

Bind and deliver O2 to tissues and bind CO2 to remove from tissue.

11

What is the diameter of a typical erythrocyte?

7.8 um

12

What is the lifespan of a typical erythrocyte?

120 days

13

_________ is a specialized protein involved in binding, transporting, and releasing O2 and CO2.

Hemoglobin

14

Hemoglobin contains four polypeptide chains of globin each containing a _______ group.

Heme

15

How many O2 molecules can one hemoglobin protein bind?

4. Each heme group can begin one O2 molecule.

16

What are the two major groups of leukocytes?

1. Polymorphonuclear Granulocytes - specific granules, multilobed nuclei

2. Mononuclear Agranulocytes - no specific granules, rounded nuclei

17

The three prominent polymorphonuclear granules are...

1. Neutrophils
2. Eosinophils
3. Basophils

18

The two most prominent mononuclear agranulocytes are...

1. Lymphocytes
2. Monocytes

19

What are the most numerous leukocytes?

Neutrophils

20

What is the function of neutrophils?

Show up first to Neutralize the situation

First responders to infection, acute inflammation, phagocytosis of bacteria within tissues

21

What is a distinguishing characteristic of neutrophils?

Dark, multiloped nucleus

22

What is a distinguishing characteristic of Eosinophils?

Large cytoplasmic granules, light bilobed nucleus

23

What is the function of eosinophils?

Defense against worms, role in allergies (histamine), chronic inflammation

24

What is the least abundant leukocyte?

Basophils

25

What is a distinguishing characteristic of basophils?

Granules are so large and dark, often hard to see nucleus

26

What is the function of basophils?

Regulate response to parasites, role in allergies

27

What is a distinguishing characteristic of a lymphocyte?

Nucleus is very dark and takes up almost whole cell, often small rim of cytoplasm on the outside

28

What are the three major lymphocytes and their functions?

1. T lymphocytes - adaptive; cell-mediated immunity
2. B lymphocytes - adaptive; humoral immunity, produce antibodies
3. NK cells - innate; kill virally infected and malignant cells

29

What is a distinguishing characteristic of monocytes?

Large, dark, kidney shaped nucleus with no granules

30

What is the function of monocytes?

Differentiate into macrophages in tissue -> phagcytic cells

31

What is the smallest leukocyte?

Lymphocyte

32

Which is the largest leukocyte?

Monocyte

33

Thrombocytes (platelets) are derived from large cells within the bone marrow called _____________.

Megakaryocytes

34

What is responsible for clot formation and repairing tears in vessel walls?

Thrombocytes

35

T/F: The Monophyletic Theory of hematopoiesis states that blood cells are derived from multiple stem cells.

FALSE.

All from hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)

36

_______ and _________ are the only cell types to come from the common lymphoid progenitor.

Lymphocytes and plasma

37

T/F: HSC is pluripotent while the CMP and CLP are multipotent.

True

38

T/F: The higher the potentiality of a stem or blast cell, the lower the mitotic rate of that cell.

True

39

There are 9 stages to erythropoiesis, what are the first four?

HSC -> CMP -> MEP -> ErP

Hematopoietic stem cell -> common myeloid progenitor -> megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitor -> erythrocyte-committed progenitor

40

What are the last five "blast" steps of erythropoeisis?

proerythroblast -> basophilic erythroblast -> polychromatiophilic erythroblast -> orthochromatic erythroblast (normoblast) -> polychromatophilic erythrocyte (reticulocyte)

41

What happens from the proerythroblast phase to the basophilic erythroblast phase?

Nucleus stays large but gets much darker along with ring of cytoplasm

42

What happens between the basophilic erythroblast phase and the polychromatophilic erythroblast phase?

Cytoplasm ring gets lighter, nucleus shrinks slightly and has much more contrast in color from cytoplasm. Nucleus has checkerboard appearance.

43

What happens between polychromatic erythroblast and orthochromatic erythroblast (normoblast)?

Nucleus shrinks considerably

44

What happens between orthochromatic erythroblast (normoblast) and polychromatophilic erythrocyte (reticulocyte)?

Nucleus disappears

45

As erythropoiesis takes place RNA ____________ and Hemoglobin ___________.

Decreases; increases

46

What are the three different processes involved in leukopoeisis?

1. Granulopoiesis
2. Monocytopoiesis
3. Lymphopoiesis

47

In granulopoiesis, how does the neutrophil pathway differ from eosinophils and basophils?

Neutrophils have a band cell stage

48

What is the general outline of granulopoeisis?

HSC -> CMP -> progenitor -> Myeloblast -> promyelocyte -> myelocyte -> metamyelocyte -> mature cell

49

What is the cell that gives rise to platelets?

Megakaryocyte

50

What is a distinguishing characteristic of megakaryocytes?

Very large cell with complex multilobed nucleus

51

What other blood cell shares a similar lineage to megakaryocytes?

Erythrocytes. (Megakaryocyte/Erythrocyte progenitor)

52

Bone marrow consists of _________ and _________ ______.

Sinusoids; hematopoietic cords

53

How is bone marrow cellularity calculated?

100% - age.

Hematopoietic cells decrease with age and are replaced with adipocytes.