Flashcards in G: Back And Vertebral Column Deck (32):
What are the three groups of muscles in the back and what are their general functions?
1. Superficial - anchor UL to axial skeleton
2. Intermediate - assist in respiration
3. Deep - maintain posture; act on vertebral column
What are the five muscles of the superior back?
1. Trapezius m.
2. Latissimus dorsi m.
3. Rhomboid major m.
4. Rhomboid minor m.
5. Levator scapulae m.
O&I: occipital to clavicle and scapula
A: elevates, depresses and retracts scapula
N: accessory n. (CN XI) and C3, C4; Transverse cervical vessels.
______ gives motor to trapezius while _______ give its proprioception.
CN XI; C3-C4
O&I: lower spine to top of humerus
A: adducts, extends, and medially rotates humerus
N: thoracodorsal n.; thoracodorsal vessels and intercostal vessels
O&I: upper spine to scapula
A: elevates scapula
N: C3, C4, and dorsal scapular n.; dorsal scapular vessels
Rhomboid major is ________ and _________ than rhomboid minor.
Rhomboid major and minor
O&I: Central spine to scapula laterally
A: retracts (adducts) and elevates scapula
N: dorsal scapular n.; dorsal scapular vessels
What are the intermediate muscles of the back?
1. Serratus posterior superior - upside down v on upper spine
2. Serratus posterior inferior - v shape on lower spine
What are the deep muscles of the back?
1. Suboccipital muscles
2. Transversospinalis (Semispinalis) muscles
3. Spinotransversales (splenius) muscles
4. Erector spinae muscles
O&I: occipital to upper spine
A: Draws head backward and extends neck. Individually: rotates head ipsilaterally
N: posterior rami of middle and lower cervical nerves
Which semispinalis muscle is most easily seen and covers the suboccipital triangle?
What is the major function of the semispinalis muscles?
Extend vertebral column. Individually rotate trunk contralaterally
What are the muscles of the suboccipital triangle and where do they border the triangle?
Medial: Rectus capitus posterior major
Lateral: Obliquus capitus superior
Base: Obliquus capitus inferior
What nerve innervates the motor senses of all muscles of the suboccipital triangle?
C1 (posterior ramus)
Which nerve and artery pierce the semispinalis capitus m. on there way to the skull?
C2 and occipital artery
What nerves and vessels travel through the suboccipital triangle?
Posterior ramus of C1 and vertebral artery
Erector spinae muscles?
O&I: lower spine to middle spine/ribs
A: erect spine (posture)
N: dorsal rami of spinal nerves; lumbar and intercostal vessels
O&I: laterally on lower spine
A: laterally flexes and rotates spine contralaterally
N: dorsal rami of spinal nerves; lumbar vessels
O&I: Laterally on middle spine
A: rotate spine contralaterally
N: dorsal rami of spinal nerves; intercostal vessels
If there was an issue with the dorsal rami of the spinal nerves what would the pathology look like in a patient?
Poor posture because the dorsal rami supply innervation for the deep back. Intermediate and superficial are from ventral rami
Serratus anterior muscle?
O&I: lateral surface of ribs to medial scapula
A: protracts scapula
N: long thoracic n.; lateral thoracic vessels
What is the significance of the triangle of auscultation?
Used as spot to listen to organs of the the thorax
What are the borders of the triangle of auscultation?
Inferior: latissimus dorsi
Lateral: rhomboid major
Deep: 6th intercostal space (between 6 and 7)
What is the significance of the lumbar triangle?
Can be site of lumbar hernia
What are the boundaries of the lumbar triangle?
Medial: latissimus dorsi
Lateral: external oblique
Inferior: iliac crest
Deep: internal oblique
What joint can often be seen in an open mouth radiograph?
How does C1 nerve exit the vertebral canal?
Between skull and C1 vertebra. This leads to 8 cervical nerves for 7 cervical vertebrae.
________ branches enter into the vertebral body, while _________ branches supply the tissue surrounding the vertebral body.
In the vertebral canal, spinal branches of arteries branch into __________ and ___________ vertebral canal branches.
The vertebral column is innervated by the ___________ meningeal branches of the spinal nerves.