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F16: Anatomy Test 3 > Bone > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bone Deck (27):
1

Bone functions?

Protection, support, mechanical basis for movement, storage, blood cell formation

2

Five Classifications based on shape

1: Long: longer than wide (upper limb and lower limb)
2: Short: cubed (ex. Carpel and tarsel)
3. Flat: scapula, etc.
4. Irregular: hip bones, vertebrae, etc.
5. Sesamoid: formed in the tendons (patella, etc.)

3

Long bone shaft structure?

Shaft (diaphysis) is hollowed out in the center where yellow or red bone marrow is found.

4

Long bone epiphysis structure

Compact bone on the outside with spongy bone on the inside.

5

What is the metaphysis?

The transition between the diaphysis and epiphysis.

6

How do long bones lengthen?

Epiphyseal plate (growth plate) is a piece of hyaline cartilage that allows for growth of bone. Eventually becomes piece of bone called epiphyseal line.

7

What separates metaphysis and epiphysis?

Growth plate (epiphyseal plate)

8

What part of the bones do tendons attach to?

Periosteum

9

What type of cartilage is articular cartilage?

Hyaline cartilage

10

Does articular cartilage have a perichondrium?

No

11

Structure of short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid bone.

Compact bone with spongy bone (diploe) in between. Compact bone is lined with periosteum.

12

Types of cells in bones?

1. Osteogenic cells
2. Osteoblasts
3. Osteocytes
4. Osteoclasts

13

ECM makeup of bone

Osteoid (organic) - type I collagen and bone matrix proteins [BMPs]; BMPs include GAGs, gylcoproteins, and osteocalsin

Inorganic - hydroxyapatite crystals (50% of dry weight of bone matrix)

14

What do osteogenic cells produce?

Osteoblasts

15

What do osteoblasts produce?

The osteiod or ECM.

16

What happens to osteoblasts after they have produced enough bone matrix?

They send out several cytoplasmic extensions become osteocytes.

They live in and maintain the calcified bone matrix.

17

What are canaliculi?

The area in the matrix that hold the cytoplasmic extensions of the osteocytes.

18

What is the function of osteoclasts?

Resorption and breakdown of bone matrix through creating a heavily acidic environment

19

Structure of osteoclasts?

Multinucleated cell with a ruffled border which is the active site of the cell.

20

How is bone calcified?

Osteoblasts release various chemicals that accumulate phosphorous and calcium around the collagen fibers.

21

What is the function of canaliculi?

The dispersion of nutrients between osteocytes and to blood vessels.

22

Structure of an osteon?

Haversian canal surrounded by lamellae

23

What are found inside the haversian canal?

Nerve fiber, artery, and veins.

24

Longitudanal osteons put together make up what type of bone?

Compact bone

25

What type of canals connect the central haversian canals to the blood vessels in the periosteum?

Volkmann's canal

26

What surrounds the vessels and nerves in a Haversian canal?

Endosteum

27

What makes up interstitial lamellae?

Old lamellae from osteons that had been previously broken down