Arteries do what? in the systemic and pulmonary circuit?
Carry blood away from heart. Oxygen rich to systemic, oxygen poor to pulmonary.
Capillaries do what?
Gas and nutrient exchange
Veins do what? In systemic and pulmonary?
Transport blood towards the heart. Oxygen poor in systemic, oxygen rich in pulmonary
What are the Vessel tunic layers?
1. Tunica Intima (touches the blood) 2. Tunica Media: Muscle 3. Tunica Externa
Capillaries have which tunica layers?
What are the structures of Blood vessels starting with the aorta to the vena cava?
1. Elastic Artery (aorta) 2. Muscular Artery 3. Arteriole 4. Capilaries 5. Venule 6. Medium-sized vein 7. Large vein (vena cava)
What are the three types of capillaries? Functions?
1. Continuous: Most common 2. Fenestrated: Little holes for hormones and nutrients 3. Sinusoid: Large holes for blood cells to get through
What is the ductus venosus?
Takes blood from umbilical vein to vena cava, bypassing liver in fetal circulation.
What is the foramen ovale?
Diverts blood from right atrium to left atrium in fetal circulation.
What is the Ductus Arteriosis?
Diverts blood from pulmonary trunk to aortic arch in fetal circulation.
Umbilical Arteries Location, Function, and Adult derivative?
L: Umbilical cord and inside abdomen. F: Carry Oxygen poor blood from fetus to placenta. AD: Medial umbilical ligaments
Umbilical Vein Location, Function, and Adult derivative?
L: Umbilical cord and inside abdomen F: Carry oxygen rich blood from placenta to fetus AD: Found ligament of liver or ligamentum teres
Ductus venosus Location, Function, and Adult Derivative?
L: Inside liver F: Divert blood from liver AD: Ligamentum Venosum
Foramen Ovale Location, Function, and Adult Derivative?
L: Between Right and left atria of heart F: Divert blood from lungs AD: Fossa Ovalis
Ductus Arteriosum Location, Function, and Adult Derivative?
L: Between pulmonary trunk and aorta F: Divert blood form lungs AD: Ligamentum Arteriosum
What is the Arterial blood pressure (BP) at aortic entrance and start of capillary network?
A: 100 mm Hg C: 35 mm Hg
What is the Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure at beginning and end?
35 mm Hg at beginning and 18 mm Hg at end.
What is the pressure within the venous system ?
18-2 mm Hg
What is your typical brachial artery BP? Pulse pressure? Mean arterial pressure (MAP)?
S/D BP=120/80 PP= S-D MAP= D+ 1/3(PP)
What are hypotension, hypertension, and orthostatic hypotension?
Hypotension: Low BP Hypertension: High BP Orthostatic: Temporary low BP due to standing up to fast.
What are branches directly off the aortic arch?
Brachiocephalic trunk, Left common Carotid, and Left Subclavian.
What branch off of the Brachiocephalic trunk.?
Right common carotid and right subclavian.
Subclavian artery passes where? What parts?
1st : medial border of anterior scalene. 2nd: Posterior to anterior scalene. 3rd: becomes axillary at first rib
What are the Subclavian a. branches? Mneumonic?
Vertebral, Internal Thoracic, Thyrocervical Trunk, Costocervical Trunk, Dorsal Scapular. VITamin C and D..
The vertebral artery travels through what two foramen? Combines to become?
Travels through transverse foramina of C1-C6, then the foramen magnum. Combines to become basilar artery.
What are the branches of the Internal Thoracic a? Also known as what artery?
AKA: internal Mammary artery. 1. Upper anterior intercostal 2. Pericardiacophrenic 3.2 terminal branches at 6th intercostal space a. Superior epigastric b. Musculophrenic
What are the Thyrocervical branches?
1. Inferior Thyroid 2. Suprascapular 3. Transverse cervical
1. Deep cervical (muscles) 2. Supreme intercostal (1st & 2nd spaces)
The common carotid bifercates where?
Where is the carotid body located? Function? Which cranial nerve?
Located at bifercation of common carotid. Chemoreceptor. CNIV
Where is the carotid sinus? Function? Cranial Nerve?
Very beginning of Internal carotid. Baroreceptor. CNIV
Which carotid artery travels through the carotid canal to enter skull?
Name the artery branches of the arm in order.
1. Subclavian 2. Axillary 3. Brachial 4. Radial 5. Ulnar
What are the branches of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd parts of the axillary artery? Where are the parts in relation to pec minor m.?
-1st (Medail to m): Superior thoracic. -2nd(behind m): Thoracromial, Lateral thoracic. -3rd(Lateral to m): Posterior Humeral Circumflex, Anterior Humeral Circumflex, Subscapular.
What are the branches of the brachial artery?
Deep brachial, Radial, Ulnar.
What are the branches of the Thoracic Aorta?
1. Bronchial 2. Mediastinal 3. Esophageal 4. Posterior Intercostal
Anterior Intercostal a branch from? Posterior?
Anterior: Internal Thoracic, Musculophrenic Posterior: Costocervical, Thoracic aorta
What are the branches of the Celiac Trunk?
1. Common Hepatic
2. Left Gastric
What are the branches of the superior mesenteric artery?
1. Inferior Pancreaticoduodental
2. Jejunal Mesenteric
3. Ileal Mesenteric
5. Right Colic
6. Middle Colic
What are the branches of the inferior mesenteric artery?
Left Colic, Sigmoid, and Superior Rectal
Name the branches of the leg, Proximal to Distal.
2. Deep Femoral
4. Anterior Tibeal
5. Posterior Tibeal
What are the differences of the Veins Draining into the Superior Vena Cava versus the branches of the Aorta?
External and Internal Jugulars instead of Carotids. 2 Brachiocephalics. Azygos Vein.
What are Azygos veins?
System of veins draining blood of thoracic cavity
What are the vein branches of the arm?
6. Bailic (medail side of arm)
7. Cephalic (Lateral side of arm)
8. Medain Cubital (connects the above two)
What is the different vein in the branches of the leg?
What are the veins of the Hepatic Portal System? Purpose of this system?
1. Hepatic Portal Vein (they all dump here)
2. Gastic Vein
3. Right gastroepiploic v
4. Splenic v
5. Inferior and Superior Mesenteric
Hepatic portal vein leads to the liver to detoxify the blood before entering the heart again.