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Flashcards in Intro to Nervous System Deck (60):

What are the two structural organizations of the nervous system? What do they comprise of?

1. Central nervous system (CNS)= Brain, Spinal cord. 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)= Cranial nerves, Spinal nerves, Ganglia.


What does the sensory nervous system do? What the the subdivisions and funtions?

1. Sensory Nervous system: Afferent (To the CNS). a. Somatic sensory: sense info from skin, skeleton, muscles. b. Visceral Sensory: Sense info from internal organs.


What does the Motor nervous system do? Subdivision and functions?

1. Motor nervous system: Efferent (away from CNS) a. Somatic Motor: Voluntary b. Autonomic Motor: Automatic (involuntary)


What are neurons and glial cells?

1. Neurons: Excitable cells that transmit nerve impluses 2. Glial: Non excitable cells that take care of neurons.


Info comes into the ______ and leaves the ______ of the neuron.

Dentrites, Axon


What are some characteristics of neurons?

High metobolic rate, Longevity, nonmitotic


WHat are unipolar, bipolar, and multipolar neurons?

1.unipolar= (sensory) Only one type of branch coming off cell body 2. Bipolar: (Special senses) two different types of branches from cell body 3. Multipolar: (Motor) many different branches


What are sensory, motor, and interneurons?

Sensory bring info into the CNS, Motor away, Interneurons sometimes act in between the two.


What is the difference between nerves and neurons?

Nerves are a cable-like bundle of parallel axons. Neurons are the individual cells that make up the nerve.


What are the three wrappings of nerves?

Epinerium (outside whole nerve), Perineurium (around each bundle), and Endoneruium (around each axon). q


What are the lobes of the cerebrum? What are their general functions?

1. Frontal (personality, reasoning), 2.Parietal( sensory integration), 3. Temporal (hearing), 4. Occipital (vison), 5.Insula (taste)


What is the homunculus? What is it made of? Which lobes?

1.Primary motor cortex of the precentral gyrus (frontal lobe) 2. Primary somatosensory coretex of the postcentral cyrus (parietal lobe).


What is the Broca's area? Wernicke's area? What is special about them?

Broca's is the speech center, Wernicke's is the general interpretive area. Both are found on the same side on only one of the hemispheres.


What is the prefrontal cortex function?

Abstract thought.


What is the left cerebral hemisphere used for?

Analytical thinking


What is the right cerebral hemisphere used for?

Sense/artistic thinking.


What are association, comissural, and projection tracts of white matter?

Association tracts allow communication within the same hemisphere. Comissral between hemispheres. Projection from brain to spinal cord.


What are the masses of gray matter embedded in white matter involved with?

Subconscious control of skeletal muscle tone, and the coordination of learned movement patterns.


What three parts are the Diencephalon made of?

1. Thalamus, 2. Epithalamus 3. Hypothalamus


What are the parts of the epithalamus?

Habenula and pineal gland.


What is the job of the thalamus?

relay station for info entering the cerebrum.


What is the function of the Hypothalamus? mnemonic?

BEETS HAMS. Behavior, Endocrine, Emotion, Temp, Sleep/wake cycle, Hunger/thirst, Autonomic control, Memory, Sexual maturation.


What is the function of the cerebellum?

Fine-tunes, Smoothens, and coordinates muscle movements


What are these regions? What are they between, divide, cover?

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1.Falx cerebri

–Projects between cerebral hemispheres

2.Tentorium cerebelli

–Separates cerebellum and cerebrum

3.Falx cerebelli

–Divides cerebellar hemispheres

4.Diaphragma sellae

–Covers the sella turcica

–The infundibulum (pituitary stalk) travels through it 


What are these dural venous sinuses?

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1.Superior sagittal sinus

2.Inferior sagittal sinus

3.Straight sinus

4.Confluence of sinuses


Name these brain ventricles. 

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1.Lateral Ventricles

2.Interventricular foramen

3.Third ventricle

4.Cerebral aqueduct

5.Fourth ventricle


Where is CSF prouces? What is its function?

Produced in the choroid plexus. Functions are buoyancy, protection, environmental stability. 


What is the general lifecycle of the CSF?

Made in chroid plexus, travels ventricles around brain and spinal cord, moves to arachnoid villi and granulations to leak into sinuses to joint blood circulation. 


Where does the spinal cord end?

Conus medullaris.


What is the cuada equina?

big bundle of nerves traveling from the end of the spinal cord. 


What type of neruons are in the anterior gray horn? Posterior?




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How many pairs of Spinal Nerves? What kinds and how many of each?

31 Pairs. 

8 Cervical

12 Thoracic

5 Lumbar

5 Sacral

1 coccygeal


Purpose of dorsal branch or posterior ramus of spinal nerve?

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Afferent from skin and skeletal muscles 

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Purpose of Ventral branch or Anterior Ramus of spinal nerves?

Efferent to skeletal and smooth muscle.


Whit Rami communicantes are what fibers? Grey?

White= Preganglionic sympathetic 

Grey= Postganglionic sympathetic


What are Dermatomes?

Area of skin supplied by the branches of a single spinal nerve. 


Pair the Cranial Nerve numbers to their names.

I, II, III, IV, V, V1, V2, V3, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII

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Crianial nerve mnemonic?

Ordor of Orangutan Terrified Tarzan After Forty Voracious Gorillas Viciously Attached Him. 


What are the three subdivisions of the Autonomic Nervous System?

1. Sympathetic, Parasympathetic, and enteric. 



What and how many neurons are in the somatic nervous system?

One sensory neuron going in to CNF, and one motor neuron coming out CNF. 


What type and how many neurons are in the autonomic nervous system?

One sensory going into CNF, 2 motor nueron chain coming out.  CNF--->Preganlionic Axon--->Ganglion--->Postganglionic Axon. 


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What is the Origin of the Sympathetic Division? What is its function?

T1-L2 of spinal cord. Fight or Flight.


What are the responses to increased Sypathetic Activity?

1.Heightened mental alertness

2.Increased metabolic rate

3.Reduced digestive and urinary functions

4.Energy reserves activated

5.Increased respiratory rate and respiratory passageways dilate

6.Increased heart rate and blood pressure

7.Sweat glands activated

8.Pupil dilation


What is the origin of the Parasympathetic Division? What is its function?

Origin is the Branstem (CNIII, VII, IX, X) and sacral spinal cord. function is Rest and Digest>


What aer the responses to increased parasympathetic activity?

1.Decreased metabolic rate

2.Decreased heart rate and blood pressure

3.Increased secretion by salivary and digestive glands

4.Increased motility and blood flow in digestive tract

5.Urination and defecation stimulation

6.Pupil constriction


What are the Paravertebral Ganglia? Innervates?

The sympathetic chain ganglia that lie on either side of the spinal cord. Innervates organs in the thoracic cavity and head. 


What is the prevertebral ganglia? Innervates?

the Collateral Ganglia anteior to the vertebral bodies. Innervates organs in the abdominopelvic region. 


How many of what kind of ganglia are the the sypathetic (paravertebral) chain ganglia?

–3 cervical ganglia

–10–12 thoracic ganglia

–4–5 lumbar ganglia

–4–5 sacral ganglia

-1 coccygeal ganglion


What are the spinal nerves that contribute to the superior cervical ganglia?



What plexus is a part of the Collateral (Prevertebral) Ganglia?

Celiac Plexus 


How many splanchnic nerves are there, where are they, and what type of nerves?

3 (greater, lesser, least), In the thoracic region, sypathetic nerves. 


N III, VII, IX, and X are associated to which ganglionic neurons?

NIII= Ciliary Ganglion

NVII= Pteryopalatine and submandibular ganglion

NIX= Otic Ganglion 

NX=Intramural Ganglia 


Parasypathetic Preganglionic fibers leave the brain as coponenets of which cranial nerves?

III (Oculomotor), VII(Facial),  IX(Glossopharyngeal), X(vagus)


WHere do parasympathetic preganglionic fibers leave the spinal cord?

At the sacral level. 


Which nerve is responsible for most of the parasympathetic outflow?

Vagus nerve


What is the third division of the Autonomic Nervous System? Fuction?

Enteric. Digestive system.