Body Structure: Chapter 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Body Structure: Chapter 4 Deck (68)
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1

Levels Of Organization

-cell
-tissue
-organ
-system
-organism

2

Cell

The smallest structural and functional unit of life.
-perform all functions associated with life: utilizing food, reproducing, eliminating waste.

3

Cytology

The study of the body at cellular level

4

Tissues

Composed of similar cells that perform specialized or common functions

5

How many tissues does the body have?

Four

1.Epithelial
2.Connective
3.Muscle
4.Nervous

6

Epithelial Tissue

Covers the surface of the organs, lining the cavities, and the outer layer of the skin: epidermis

7

Connective Tissue

Supports other body tissues, like cartilage, adipose, bone, blood

8

Muscle Tissue

Responsible for movement, this is a contractile tissue

9

Nervous Tissue

Transmits electrical impulses to relay information throughout the body

10

Organs

Composed of two or more tissue types
ex: the stomach is composed of muscle and connective tissue, with epithelial tissue lining the outside of the stomach

11

Systems

A body system is composed of various numbers of organs and structures with similar functions.
ex: the organs of the gastrointestinal system include the esophagus, stomach, small intestine and colon. Together they work together to digest food, absorb nutrients, and expel waste products.

12

Organism

The highest level of organization. They are made up of several body systems that work together to sustain life.

13

Body Plane

Imaginary flat surface that divides the body into two sections
-Midsagittal (median) plane
-Coronal (frontal) plane
-Transverse (horizontal) plane

14

Midsagittal (median) plane

Runs through the center of the body, divides into right and left halves

15

Coronal (frontal) plane

Divides into an anterior and posterior section

16

Transverse (horizontal) plane

Divides into a top and bottom section

17

superior

above; toward the head or upper portion of a structure

18

inferior

below; away from the head or toward the tail or lower part of a structure

19

anterior (ventral)

Front (of the body)

20

posterior (dorsal)

Back ( of the body)

21

proximal

Going up; nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body

22

distal

Going down; further from the center (trunk of the body) or from the point of attachment to the body

23

lateral

Pertaining to a side

24

medial

Pertaining to the midline of the body or structure

25

Body Cavities

spaces within the body that hold, protect, separate, and support internal organs.
1. Dorsal Cavity
2. Ventral Cavity

26

Dorsal Cavity (posterior)

Divided into cranial and spinal cavities
-located on the back of the body (posterior)

27

Ventral Cavity (anterior)

Divided into the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities or thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity
-located on the front of the body (anterior)

28

Abdominopelvic Cavity Quadrants

Divided into four quadrants by two imaginary lines that cross at the umbilicus of the body
-Right upper quadrant (RUQ)
-Right lower quadrant (RLQ)
-Left upper quadrant (LUQ)
-Left lower quadrant (LLQ)

-provides reference points; location of incision sites, abdominal pain, abdominopelvic organs, operative and physical examinations

29

Abdominopelvic Cavity Regions

9 Regions:
-Right hypochondriac- upper right lateral region beneath ribs
-Epigastric- upper middle region
-Left hypochondriac- upper left lateral region beneath the ribs
-Right Lumbar- middle right lateral region
-Umbilical- region of the navel
-Left Lumbar- middle left lateral region
-Right inguinal (iliac)- lower right lateral region
-Hypogastric- lower middle region
-Left inguinal (iliac)- lower left lateral region

30

cyt/o

-cell