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Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (25)
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Remove toxic products from blood by forming urine
- right and a left (you have 2)
-bean-shaped organ located in the lumbar region on the back
-Retroperitoneal: lie outside of the peritoneum



microscopic filtering units of the kidneys
-forms urine in renal corpuscles and tubules by process of Filtration, Reabsorption, and Secretion



Vessels for carrying urine in peristaltic waves (contracts + Relaxation; pushes urine to bladder) from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
-vessels that's goes from the kidney to the bladder



Temporary reservoir for urine
-hollow, muscular sac



Tube that caries urine from the urinary bladder to outside the body in a process called Urination, or Voiding, or Micturation


Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

Progressive, irreversible decrease in renal function
(long and usually slow process where the kidneys lose their ability to function)
-metabolic, fluid and
-electrolyte imbalances
-Uremia and nitrogenous waste products build-up in the blood
-effects in every body system


Chronic Kidney Disease: Signs + Symptoms

-polyuria (lots of urine) and oliguria (low amount of urine)
-edema (swelling) of the extremities, sacral area, and abdomen
-weakness and fatigue
-nausea vomiting
-In later stages, yellowish pale skin that causes itching due to urea crystals on the skin


Chronic Kidney Disease: Treatments

-Dietary restrictions (protein, salt(water comes with it; cause edema), potassium (to much potassium; heart attack))
-Control on blood glucose levels and blood pressure
-smoking cessation
-prevention of further damage and end-stage renal disease (ESRD)


End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)

Inability of kidneys to sustain daily activity (when the kidneys have completely and permanently shut down)
-usually the result of chronic renal failure
-toxic build-up of urea and creatinine in the blood
-effects all systems, with dialysis or renal transplantation needed for survival


End-Stage Renal Disease: Signs + Symptoms

-progressive, with varied severity depending on the extent of renal damage and remaining function


End-Stage Renal Disease: Treatments

-Dietary restriction of protein, sodium, and potassium
-antiemetic's for nausea
-control of hypertension
-renal transplantation:
Patients kidneys usually left in place
Donor's kidney usually placed inferior to diseased kidney


Acute Renal Failure (ARF)

A sudden loss of kidney function caused by an illness, an injury, or a toxin that stresses the kidneys
(kidney function may recover)
-happens before CKD and ESRD


Renal Calculi

Concentration of mineral salts in the renal pelvis or calyx
-most common cause of urinary obstruction
-"kidney stones"


Renal Calculi: Signs + Symptoms

-Possibly asymptomatic for long periods
-intense pain and urinary urgency if the calculus fragment lodges in the ureter
-dull, constant pain if calculus is in the renal pelvis and calyx
-back pain and severe abdominal pain
-other signs and symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, chills and fever, hematuria (bloody urine), and abdominal distension


Renal Calculi: Treatments

-Passage of small calculi without treatment
-surgical excision (lithotomy) for larger calculi
-extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL): powerful sound waves used to break up calculi/ kidney stone (using ultrasound to locate and monitor calculi destruction)
-prevention of new calculus formation and enhanced elimination of calculi with increased fluid intake
-Antibiotics if build-up is due to bacterial infection
-Analgesics for relief of intense pain



Insertion of a slender tube into the bladder
-used to withdraw urine for diagnostic purposes
-used to introduce liquids



Diversion of the patients blood into a machine for filtering
-return of filtered blood to the body


Peritoneal Dialysis

Dialysis using the patient's peritoneum (the serous membrane lining the cavity of the abdomen and covering the abdominal organs)
-infusion of dialysis solution into peritoneum
-removal of fluid containing waste products
(fresh dialysis solution from a bag is infused then the used solution in removed back into the bag)


Extracorporeal Shock-Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL)

use of powerful sound-wave vibrations to pulverize (break down in particles) calculi (stones) in the kidney


Renal Transplantation

diseased kidney's replaced by transplanted kidney


Bladder Scan

-Use of sound waves to estimate the amount of urine in the bladder
-painless and noninvasive (not require instruments into the body)
-no patient preparation required



Insertion of a cystoscope through the urethra and into the urinary bladder
-used for various purposes
-examining the bladder
-obtaining biopsies of tumors or other growths
-removing polyps


Pharmacology: Antibiotics

treat infection
-kill everything
-use only when needed; because you will become immune to it + need a stronger antibiotic


Pharmacology: Antispasmodics

prevents spasms
-good for bladder infections


Pharmacology: Diuretics

help you urinate