Digestive System: Chapter 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Digestive System: Chapter 6 Deck (41)
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1

Digestive system

Breaks down food physically and chemically
-prepares food for absorption by cells of the body
-eliminates waste functions

2

Structure Of The Digestive System

Oral Cavity:
-teeth
-salivary glands
Pharynx (throat)
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine

3

Accessory Organs Of The Digestive System

-Liver
-Gallbladder
-Pancreas

4

Oral Cavity

First part of the Digestive tract (mouth + teeth) where the mechanical process of chewing and chemical breakdown of food by salivary secretions initiates the Digestive process

5

3 Parts Of Small Intestine + Their Location

Duodenum- first segment
Jejunum- second segment
Ileum- third segment

6

First 4 sections Of The Colon

-Ascending (up)
-Transverse (loop or inward portion)
-Descending (down)
-Sigmoid (straight part, from left to right)

7

Pancreas

Elongated, flattened organ posterior and slightly inferior(below,lower) to the stomach that produces digestive enzymes and insulin

8

Gallbladder

Organ on the inferior(below, lower) surface of the liver that stores bile
-cholecyst/o

9

Gingiv/o

Gums

10

Lingu/o, gloss/o

Tongue

11

Orexia

Appetite

12

Anorexia

Without an appetite
An-without
Orexia- appetite

13

Dysphagia

Swallowing, eating (that is) painful or difficult
Phagia- swallowing

14

Postprandial hyperglycemia

Exaggerated rise in blood sugar following a meal
Ex: type 2 diabetes; pancreas can be sluggish about secreting insulin in response to a meal
Prandial- relating to eating food

15

Gingivitis

Inflammation of the gums

16

Appendicitis

Inflammation of the appendix
-pain usually localized in the right lower quadrant (RLQ)

17

Appendicitis: signs + symptoms

-Pain usually In RLQ
-fever, malaise
-diarrhea
- results from obstruction or infection caused by a fecalith (hard mass of fecal matter) or bacteria

18

Appendicitis: Treatments

Appendectomy- removal of appendix

19

Diverticulitis

Acute inflammation of diverticulae (pockets; line inside of your intestine)

20

Diverticulosis

Presence of diverticulae without inflammation

21

Diverticulitis: signs + symptoms

-tenderness and pain in left lower quadrant (LLQ) of abdomen
- bowel changes, alternating between constipation and diarrhea

22

Diverticulitis: Treatment

-IV antibiotics and a few days without food or drink (if severe)
-focus on clearing up inflammation and infection, resting the colon

23

Obstipation

Extreme constipation

24

Cholelithiasis + Choledocholithiasis

Formation or presence of gallstones within the gallbladder bile ducts

25

Cholelithiasis + Choledocholithiasis: Signs + Symptoms

-acute onset of upper right quadrant (URQ) abdominal pain that radiates to the shoulder and back
-nausea + vomiting
-classic "attack" called biliary colic, from bile duct obstruction
-following ingestion of large or fatty meals

26

Cholelithiasis + Choledocholithiasis: Treatments

Nonsurgical:
-extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

Surgical:
- laparoscopic cholecystectomy
Cholecystectomy- excision of gallbladder

27

Anastomosis

Connection between two vessels; surgical joining of 2 ducts, blood vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to the other

28

Ascites

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity

29

Borborygmus

Audible abdominal sound caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine

30

Cachexia

State of ill health, malnutrition, and wasting that may occur in many chronic diseases + infections