Female and Male Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Female and Male Reproductive System Deck (38)
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1

Female Reproductive System

-Ovaries
-Fallopian Tubes
-Uterus
-Vagina
-Clitoris
-Vulva
-Mammary Glands

2

Ovaries

-Two ovaries located on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity
-Production of estrogen and progesterone, which affects puberty, menstruation, and pregnancy

3

Fallopian Tubes

-Extending laterally at superior angle from the uterus
-Pathway of ovum into uterus
-Fimbria- finger-like projections that propel the ovum into the oviduct

4

Uterus

-Muscular, hollow, pear-shaped structure suspended by ligaments in the pelvic cavity
-Responsible for housing and nourishing the embryo from implantation of the fertilized egg until birth

5

Vagina

-Muscular tube extending from the cervix to the exterior of the body
-Organ of sexual intercourse
-Passageway for delivery of the fetus

6

Clitoris

-located anterior to the vaginal orifice
-organ of sexual response in the female
-composed of erectile tissue with sensory nerve endings

7

Vulva

Structures of the external genitalia
-Labia majora: thicker, outermost structures
-Labia minora: smooth, thin, inner structures
Responsible for protecting the internal genitals

8

Mammary Glands

-glandular lobes located in the breast of females that contain milk ducts, which lead to an opening in the nipple of the breast
-not directly involved in reproduction
-more important after delivery
-production of milk to nourish neonate(newborn) after birth

9

Ectopic Pregnancy

-implantation and growth of fertilized ovum in places other than the uterine cavity
-most common site in a fallopian tube

10

Ectopic Pregnancy: Signs + Symptoms

-signs of early pregnancy
-abdominal pain and tenderness as well as slight vaginal bleeding
-life-threatening rupture of a fallopian tube due to development of the conceptus, causing severe abdominal pain and intra-abdominal bleeding

11

Ectopic Pregnancy: Treatment

-Laparotomy, with all attempts made to save the ovary
-possible removal of a ruptured fallopian tube
-possible blood transfusion in severe intra-abdominal bleeding or hypovolemic shock

12

Breast Cancer

-encompassing a variety of malignant neoplasms (abnormal growth of tissue) of the breast
-usually beginning in the cells of the lobules (milk-producing glands) or the ducts that carry milk to the nipple
-most common malignancy of women in the U.S.
-associated with ovarian hormone function

13

Breast Cancer: Signs + Symptoms

Early Signs + Symptoms:
-common early sign: abnormality detected on a mammogram
-other early signs and symptoms: swelling, lump, dimpling, retraction of the nipple, discharge from the nipple, tenderness
Advanced Signs + Symptoms:
-nodularity, redness, edema, skin ulceration, enlarged or shrunken breast
-most common lump site: upper, outer quadrant of the breast

14

Breast Cancer: Contributing Factors

-high-fat diet
-family history of breast cancer
-use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), especially for prolonged periods of time

15

Breast Cancer: Treatment

-Lumpectomy
ex:primary tumor and surrounding tissue removed
-Modified radical mastectomy
ex: entire breast and underarm lymph nodes removed with chest muscles left intact
-adjuvant chemotherapy possibly indicated after surgery if malignant cells found in lymph nodes
-any combination of surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy

16

Endometriosis

-growth of endometrial tissue in areas outside the uterus
-tissue found anywhere in the body, but most commonly within the pelvic area

17

Endometriosis: Signs + Symptoms

-dysmenorrhea with pain in the lower back and vagina
-severity of pain not indicative of extent of disease
-dyspareunia (painful sex)
-dysuria (painful peeing)
-painful defecation (less common)

18

Endometriosis: Treatment

Based on the type of severity of symptoms
-aim to alleviate symptoms through medications or surgery
-shrinking or slowing down endometrial growth using hormone therapy (usually estrogen in mild cases)
-if no pregnancy planned, birth control methods (patch, pills or rings) to control the disorder
-surgery (laparoscopic) for severe symptoms to remove endometrial growth and adhesions
-Hysterectomy in most severe cases

19

Hysterectomy

surgical removal of the uterus
-Subtotal Hysterectomy- uterus removed
-Total Hysterectomy- uterus and cervix removed
-Total Hysterectomy plus bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy- take ovaries with it

20

Laparoscopy

visual examination of the abdominal cavity with an endoscope (laparoscope) through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall, usually at the umbilicus

21

Mammography

Radiographic (x-ray) examination of the breasts
-use of a special machine that spreads and flattens breast tissue to a thin layer
-providing more effective visualization of benign or malignant growths that are typically hidden by breast structures on a typical chest examination

22

Amniocentesis

-Transabdominal puncture of the amniotic sac under ultrasound guidance to remove amniotic fluid
-used to detect genetic and biochemical disorders and fetal maturity

23

Male Reproductive System

-Testes
-Epididymis
-Vas deferens
-Seminal vesicles
-Ejaculatory duct
-Bulbourethral Gland
-Prostate Gland
-Penis

24

Testes

-located in the scrotum
-production of sperm, the male sex cell
-secretion of testosterone, the hormone that develops and maintains maleness

25

Epididymis

-located on top of the testes
-storage place for sperm before ejaculation

26

Vas deferens

transportation of sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct

27

Seminal Vesicle

-nutrients to support sperm
-production of approximately 60% of the seminal fluid ejaculated during intercourse

28

Ejaculatory Duct

duct through which semen enters the urethra

29

Bulbourethral Glands (Cowper Glands)

production of alkaline fluid necessary for sperm viability

30

Prostate Gland

-Triple-lobed organ situated at base of bladder
-production of an alkaline substance that protects sperm against the acid environment of the vagina