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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (49)
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1

Endocrine System contains

-pituitary gland
-thyroid gland
-parathyroid
-adrenal gland
-pancreas
-pineal and thymus glands
-ovaries and testes (part of reproductive and endocrine system)

2

Endocrine System: Structure and Function

-consisting of endocrine (ductless) glands
-secretion of chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream
-control and integration of many bodily functions
-action of hormones on target organs to increase or decrease the targets activity level; faster heart rate, sweaty palms when nervous
-monitoring and interpretation of and reaction to changes in the body and external environment to maintain homeostasis

3

Pituitary gland (hypophysis)

Tiny, pea-shaped structure at the base of the brain
-consists of an anterior and posterior lobe
-regulation of many body activities
-stimulation of other glands to secrete their own specific hormones
-effects of its hormones felt throughout the body
-produces many different hormones which effect different body systems

4

Anterior Pituitary (Anterior lobe)

Secretion of six hormones:
1. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
2. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
3. Luteinizing hormone (LH)
4. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
5. Prolactin (PRL)
6. Growth Hormone (GH)
also melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

5

Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)

regulates the production of steroid hormones by the adrenal gland
(anterior pituitary lobe)

6

Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)

stimulates egg production in the ovaries or sperm production in the testes
(anterior pituitary lobe)

7

Growth Hormone (GH)

also called somatotropin, which regulates growth of bones and other tissue
(anterior pituitary lobe)

8

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

stimulates the production of sex hormones by the ovaries or testes
(anterior pituitary lobe)

9

Prolactin (PRL)

stimulates growth of breast tissue and milk production in females
(anterior pituitary lobe)

10

Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)

regulates activity of the thyroid gland
(anterior pituitary lobe)

11

Posterior Pituitary (Posterior lobe)

(neurohypophysis)
Secretion of two hormones:
1. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
2. Oxytocin

12

Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

also called vasopressin,
-regulation of urinary output
-role in blood pressure regulation
(posterior pituitary gland)
anti- against diuretic- urination

13

Oxytocin

-inducement of labor in pregnant women by stimulating contractions in the uterus
-promotion of milk secretion from the mammary glands
(posterior pituitary lobe)

14

Thyroid Gland

Two lobes on either side of the Trachea (butterfly shaped organ)
Secretion of three hormones:
1. Calcitonin
2. Triiodothyronine (T3)
3. Thyroxine (T4)

15

Calcitonin

regulates normal blood levels of calcium and phosphate (in conjunction with parathyroid hormone)
(Thyroid gland hormone)

16

Triiodothyronine (T3)

increases the rate of cellular metabolism
(Thyroid gland hormone)

17

Thyroxine (T4)

increases the rate of cellular metabolism after being converted to T3 in the tissues
(Thyroid gland hormone)

18

Parathyroid gland

Two pairs of pea-shaped organs located on the underside of the thyroid gland (yellow ones)
-secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH)
-regulation of normal blood levels of calcium and phosphate (In conjunction with calcitonin)

19

Pancreas

Elongated organ located just below the stomach in back of the abdomen
-secretion of two hormones:
1. Insulin
2. Glucagon

20

Insulin

removes glucose from the blood by promoting storage in tissues as carbohydrates when blood glucose levels are high
(pancreas hormone)

21

Glucagon

stimulates the release of sugar from storage sites in the liver when blood glucose levels are low
(pancreas hormone)

22

Pineal gland

Small, pinecone-shaped organ located deep within the brain just behind the thalamus
-secretion of melatonin, influences the maturation of sexual organs during puberty

23

Thymus gland

Butterfly-shaped organ located between the lungs (right + left lobe)
-withering away during puberty, leaving adults with fat and connective tissue in its place
-secretion of thymosin, which plays a role in development of the immune response in infants

24

Ovaries

Functioning in the female reproductive and endocrine systems
-secretion of two female sex hormones
1. Estrogen
2. Progesterone

25

Estrogen (estradiol)

stimulates development of ova (eggs) and secondary sex characteristics
(ovaries hormone)

26

Progesterone

prepares and maintains the uterus in pregnancy

27

Testes

Functioning in the male reproductive and endocrine systems
-secretion of male sex hormone testosterone
-responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics and sex drive
-necessary for sperm production
-maintenance of the reproductive organs in adult males

28

Graves Disease

caused by oversecretion of hormones (T3 and T4) by the thyroid gland, in which elevated levels produce profound changes in the body's physiological processes
-more common in woman than men
-most common form of hyperthyroidism

29

Graves Disease Signs + Symptoms

-exophthalmos
-elevated metabolic rate
-heat intolerance
-weight loss, fatigue, and muscle weakness
-enlarged thyroid (goiter)
-thyrotoxic crisis (storm), including many cardiac manifestations
-tachycardia
-arrhythmias
-heart murmurs
-cardiomegaly
-eyes are likely to protrude

30

Graces Disease Treatments

depending on patient's age and severity of the disease
-antithyroid agents to block hormone synthesis within the thyroid gland
-alteration in the structure of the thyroid gland through surgery or radioactive iodine therapy
-beta blockers in combination with one of the treatments listed above