Bone: Infection & Metabolic bone disease Flashcards Preview

Pathology Unit 5 > Bone: Infection & Metabolic bone disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bone: Infection & Metabolic bone disease Deck (42):
1

Most common agent of osteomyelitis?

Staph

2

Most common mechanism for contracting osteomyelitis?

Direct penetration

3

Hematogenous osteomyelitis is most commonly seen in...

boys (post infection) and IV drug users

4

What area of the bone does hematogenous osteomyelitis mainly affect?

Metaphysis

5

Hole formed in the bone during the formation of a draining sinus?

cloaca

6

Fragment of necrotic bone that is embedded in pus?

Sequestration

7

Reactive bone formation from the periosteum and the endosteum (which surrounds and contains the infection)?

Brodie infection

8

Peristeal new bone formation forms a sheath around the necrotic sequestration?

Involucrum

9

What occurs in veterbral osteomyelitis?

intervertebral disk expands with pus and is destryed

10

What are two possible complications of osteomyelitis?

amyloidosis, chronic osteomyelitis, and SCC

11

What # vertebrae does TB effect in Pott disease?

T11

12

In Pott Disease TB...how are the vertebrae destroyed?

resorption of bony trabeculae (mechanical collapse)

13

Aside from pott disease, how else can TB manifest int the bone?

1. Tubercuous Arthritis... granulomas in synovial/ joint tissue

2. Osteomyelitis of the Long Bones

14

How can syphilis affect the bone?

slowly progressive, chronic, inflammatory disease of bone characterized by granulomas necrosis and reactive bone formation

15

In congenital syphilis what is the most commonly affected joint?

knee

16

In acquired syphilis when are bone lesions seen?

Tertiary syphilis...2-5 years after inoculation

17

In acquired syphilis which bones are commonly affected?

tibia, nose, palate and skull

"saber shin" and "saddle nose" deformities

18

What are the bone defects seen in langerhans cell histiocytosis?

Punched out lytic defects without reactive bone formation

19

Name the 3 langerhans cell histiocytosis?

1- eosinophilic granuloma

2- Hand- Schuller- Christian disease

3- Letterer- Siwe Disease

20

Which is the worst langerhans histiocytosis?

Letterer- Siwe Disease

(failure to thrive, cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, leukopenia, skin lesions)

21

Name the disease:

"diffuse skeletal lesions marked by decreased skeletal mass and inadequate mechanical support"

osteoporosis

22

Main causes of osteoporosis?

Menopause and aging

23

Match the categories:

1: Type 1 Primary Osteoporosis, Type 2 Primary Osteoporosis

2: Menopause, aging

3: decreased osteoblast function, increased osteoclast recruitment

Type 1--> menopause--> increased osteoclast recruitment

Type 2--> aging--> decreased osteoblast function

24

Name the disorder:

"inadequate mineralization of newly formed bone matrix"

Osteomalacia and ricketes

25

What is milkman- Looser syndrome:

formation of radiolucent psuedofracutres )often on the concave side of long bones)

26

What does von Kossa stain do?

colors calcified tissue black

27

"Buddha-like" posture? "Pigeon breast"? "potbelly"?

seen in children with rickets

28

What is a common causes of osteomalacia and rickets?

Vit D deficiency--> decreased Ca

29

What is the difference between vit D dependent rickets type I and type II?

Type I: mutation in 1-alpha hydroxylase (treat with vit D)

Type II: mutation of vit D receptor (treat with Ca)

30

Name the disease:

mutation of PHEX--> inactivation of FGF23--> phosphate wasting and impaired osteoblast function

X- linked hypophosphatemia

31

What is fanconi syndrome?

Wasting from the proximal tubule leading to renal tubular acidosis resulting in rickets and osteomalacia

32

What can cause fanconi syndrome?

Bence -Jones proteinuria, amyloidosis, Iron/ Mercury poinoning, glycogen storage diseases

33

In what disease is osteitis fibrosa seen (accelerated bone remodeling)

primary hyperthyroidism

34

What are the stages of osteitis fibrosia?

1- dissecting osteitis

2- osteitis fibrosa

3- osteitis fibrosa cystica

35

How does osteitis fibrosa cystica present?

"brown tumor"--> bulbous swelling with multiple lytic lesions

36

Symptoms of renal osteodystrophy?

Decreased GFR
Hypocalcemia
Increased PTH and phsophate
Osteomalacia

37

Name the disease:

lytic lesions of bone resulting from disordered remodeling

Paget disease of the bone

38

What are the 3 stages of paget disease?

1- "hot" or osteoclastic resorptive stage

2- mixed stage (osteoblast and osteoclast activity)

3- "cold" or burnt-out stage (decreased cellularity)

39

What is the pathological cell of pathologic disease?

osteoclast (super-multinucleated osteoclasts)

40

Most common symptom of paget's?

Bone pain

41

Name the disease:

developmental abnormality characterized by a disorganized mixture of fibrous and osseous elements in medullary region of affected bones

fibrous dysplasia

42

What is McCune- Albright Syndreme?

form of fibrous dysplasia, short stature, pigmented "cafe-au-lit" macules