Pathoma: Thyroid Flashcards Preview

Pathology Unit 5 > Pathoma: Thyroid > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathoma: Thyroid Deck (32):
1

Where does the thyroid develop?

base of the tongue (then travels along the thyroglossal duct into the anterior neck)

2

"cystic dilation of thyroglossal duct remnant"

thyroglossal duct cyst

3

"persistance of thyroid tissue at the base of tongue"

lingual thyroid

4

Hyper or hypothyroid?

"diarrhea, bone resporption, hyperglycemia, staring gaze with lid, tachycardia. weight loss, heat intolerance, decreased muscle mass"

Hyperthyroid

5

"autoantibody (IgG) that stimulates TSH receptor"

Graves disease

6

Most common cause of hyperthyroidism?

Graves disease

7

Why is there exophthalmos in Graves disease?

fibroblasts behind the orbit have TSH receptors

8

Lab findings in primary hyperthyroidism/ Graves?

Increased total and free T4

Decreaseed TSH

Hypercholesterolemia

Hyperglycemia

9

"Enlarged thyroid gland with multiple nodules that is due to a iodine deficiency"

multinodular goiter

10

"Hypothyroidism in neonates and infants characterized by mental retardation, short stature, enlarged tongue, umbilical hernia"

Cretinism

11

Hyper or hypothyroidism?

"myxedema weight gain, cold intolerance bradycardia, oligomenorrhea, constipation"

hypothyroidism/ myxedema

12

Most common causes of hypothyroidism/ myxedema?

Iodine deficiency

Hashimoto thyroiditis

Drugs

Surgical removal/ ablation

13

"autoimmune destruction of the thyroid gland"

Hashimoto thyroiditis

14

What antibodies are seen in hashimoto's?

Anti TG and anti thyroid peroxidase

15

What does Hashimoto's increase the risk of developing?

B cell (marginal zone) lymphoma

16

"granulomatous thyroiditis that follows a viral infection and is self limited"

subacute granulomatous (De Quervian) thyroiditis

17

What are the symptoms of De Querian thyroiditis?

Tender thyroid with transient hyperthyroidism

18

"chronic inflammation with excessive fibrosis of thyroid gland"

Reidel fibrosing thyroiditis

19

Symptoms of Reidel fibrosing thyroiditis?

hypothyroidism and hard, nontender thyroid

20

Are thyroid nodules usually malignant or benign?

Benign

21

"hot" vs "cold" thyroid nodule

Hot: increased I131 uptake (graves)

Cold: decreased I131 uptake (adenoma or carcinoma)

22

"benign proliferation of follicles surrounded by a fibrous capsule"

follicular adenoma

23

Are follicular adenomas functional or nonfunctional?

nonfunctional usually

24

Most common type of thyroid carcinoma?

Papillary carcinoma

25

Major risk factor for thyroid papillary carcinoma?

exposure to ionizing radiation in childhood

26

"papillae lined by cells with clear 'orphan annie eye' nuclei and nuclear grooves"

papillary carcinoma

27

"malignant proliferation of follicles surrounded by a fibrous capsule with invasion through the apsule"

follicular carcinoma

28

how can you tell the difference between follicular carcinoma and adenoma?

invasion through the capsule in carcinoma

29

"malignant proliferatoin of parafollicular C cells"

Medullary carcinoma

30

Symptoms of medullary carcinoma?

increased calcitonin that can cause hypocalcemia and amyloid deposits

31

What familial disorders is medullary carcinoma of the thyroid seen in?

MEN II Type A and B--> RET oncogene mutations

32

"undifferentiated malignant tumor of the thyroid, usually in the elderly"

anaplastic carcinoma