Endocrine: Adrenal Glands Flashcards Preview

Pathology Unit 5 > Endocrine: Adrenal Glands > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine: Adrenal Glands Deck (38):
1

"largest zone of the adrenal cortex"

Zona fasciculata

2

What organelles are abundant in steroid producing cells?

SER and mitochondria

3

Why is there Hyperplasia in CAH?

because of the unopposed ACTH effect on the gland

4

Which zone is the most hyperplastic in CAH?

Zona fasciculata

5

"female has psuedohermaphroditis and sterile as an adult, male has short stature and azospermia"

Simple virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia

21 hydroxylase deficiency

6

"virilization and hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, dehydration, hypotension, increased renin"

Salt-wasting CAH

21 hydroxylase deficiency

7

"no abnormalities at birth, virilization at puberty"

Late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia

21 hydroxylase deficiency

8

"high levels of androgen and 11-deoxycortisol, Hypernatremia, hypertension, seen in Jews"

11 beta hydroxylase deficnecy

9

"autoimmune destruction of the adrenal gland"

Addison's disease

10

Aside from autoimmune, what is another common cause of addisons?

TB!

11

What type of immune problem is addisons?

T cell mediated damage...there are multiple HLA links

12

What are the symptoms of addisons?

Weight loss, Hypotension, salt wasting, hyperpigmentation, GI symptoms, hymphocytosis and eosinophelia

13

"adrenal insufficiency, hypoparathyrodism, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, type I diabetes, vitiligo, hypothyroidism"

Type I polyglandular autoimmune syndrome

14

"adrenal insufficiency, women, HLA-DR3, hashimoto's, graves, T1DM, premature ovarian failure, more common"

Type II polyglandular autimmune syndrome

15

"acute, bilateral, hemorrhagic infarction of the adrenal cortex, due to meningococcus or psuedomonas"

Waterhous- Friderisch Syndrome

16

Most common cause of acute adrenal insufficiency?

Abrupt withdrawal of corticosteroids

17

Most cases of ACTH dependent adrenal hyperfunction (cushing) are cuased by?

Ectopic productino of ACTH

18

What syndromes are adrenal adenomas associate with? (3)

MEN 1, Carney complex, McCune- Albright Syndrome

19

Most common cause of cushing syndrome?

chronic corticosteroid use

20

"pigmented skin lesions, myxomas, testicular tumors, pituitary GH tumors, lipofuscin laden cells in the adrenals"

bilateral adrenal microndular hyperplasia/ Carney complex

21

"inappropriate secretion of sldosterone due to adrenal adenoma or hyperplasia"

Conn Syndrome (hyperaldosteronism)

22

"cells derived from primitive pheochromoblasts of the developing SNS"

Chromaffin cells

23

Blood supply of the adrenal medulla?

portal system blood!

24

Key symptoms of pheochromocytoma?

HTN

25

What syndromes can Pheo's be associated with?

MEN 2A/B, von Hippel- Lindau disease, neurofibromatosis Type I, McCune-Albright Syndrome

26

"HTN, paroxysmal convulsions/ anxiety/ hyperventilation/ throbbing headache"

Pheo

27

Classic histologic fundings in pheo?

Zellballen cells...circumscribed nests of neoplastic cells

28

Pheo's stain (+) for...

enolase (+)

Chormogranin (+)

Syndaptophysin (+)

29

"Pheochromocytomas arising in extra-adrenal sites"

Paraganglioma

30

Who are carotid body tumors more commonly found in?

people living in high altitudes

31

Mutation in MEN 1 and MEN 2

MEN1= MEN1 tumor suppressor gene

MEN2= RET protoncogene

32

"constellation of pituitary adenoma, parathyroid hyperplasia/ adenoma, islet cell tumors of the pancreas"

MEN type I

33

"constellation of medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism"

MEN type 2A

34

"constellation of mucosal neuroma syndrome, marfanoid habitus (long fingers and limbs)"

MEN type 2B

35

Most common solid extracranial neoplasms of children"

neuroblastomas

36

How are neuroblastomas diagnosed?

Urine levels of norepi, VMA, HVA and DA

37

Histology seen in neuroblastomas?

Homer-Wright Rosettes, sheets of small, dark, lymphocyte like cells

38

"mature varient, neural crest tumor, older children/ young adults, benign tumors that arise from sympathetic ganglia"

ganglioneuroma