Flashcards in Pathoma: Endocrine Pancreas Deck (25):
"center of islets, insulin producing cells"
"glucagon producing cells"
Hormone that upregulates GLUT 4 receptor?
Where are GLUT 4 receptors found?
Skeletal muscle and adipose
"insulin deficiency leading to metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia"
What is the cause of T1DM?
autoimmune destruction of beta cells by T lymphocytes
HLA's associated with T1DM?
HLA- DR3 and HLA- DR4
What is seen in histology of T1DM?
inflammation of the islets
Symptoms of T1DM?
Childhood, high serum glucose, low muscle mass, polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria, glycosuria
Which stress hormone stimulates glucagon?
3 criteria for DKA?
Hyperglycemia, ketones, metabolic acidosis
Additional symptoms of DKA?
Kussmaul breathing,dehydration, nausea, vomiting, metal status changes, fruity smelling breath
Treatment for DKA?
Fluids, insulin, electrolytes
"end organ resistance to insulin resulting in diabetes"
What is the link between obesity and insulin receptors?
Insulin leads to decreased numbers of insulin receptors
Describe insulin levels in T2DM?
High early on, but low later in disease because of beta cell exhaustion
Findings in HHS?
No ketones, hyperglycemia, hyperosmolar dehydration
Leading cause of death in diabetics?
CVD (atherosclerosis due to nonenzymatic glycosylation of basement membranes)
NEG or small vessels causes...
Islet cell tumors (insulinomas) are usually associated with which inherited constellation of neoplasms?
MEN 1= ______+ _______+ ______
insulinoma, parathyroid adenoma, pituitary adenoma
Symptoms of insulinomas?
Hypoglycemia, mental status changes relieved by glucose, increased C-peptide
"treatment resistant peptic ulcers"
"achlorhydria, choleithiasis, steatorrhea"