Pathoma: Endocrine Pancreas Flashcards Preview

Pathology Unit 5 > Pathoma: Endocrine Pancreas > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathoma: Endocrine Pancreas Deck (25):
1

"center of islets, insulin producing cells"

Beta cells

2

"glucagon producing cells"

alpha cells

3

Hormone that upregulates GLUT 4 receptor?

Insuline

4

Where are GLUT 4 receptors found?

Skeletal muscle and adipose

5

"insulin deficiency leading to metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia"

T1MD

6

What is the cause of T1DM?

autoimmune destruction of beta cells by T lymphocytes

7

HLA's associated with T1DM?

HLA- DR3 and HLA- DR4

8

What is seen in histology of T1DM?

inflammation of the islets

9

Symptoms of T1DM?

Childhood, high serum glucose, low muscle mass, polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria, glycosuria

10

Which stress hormone stimulates glucagon?

epinephrine

11

3 criteria for DKA?

Hyperglycemia, ketones, metabolic acidosis

12

Additional symptoms of DKA?

Kussmaul breathing,dehydration, nausea, vomiting, metal status changes, fruity smelling breath

13

Treatment for DKA?

Fluids, insulin, electrolytes

14

"end organ resistance to insulin resulting in diabetes"

T2DM

15

What is the link between obesity and insulin receptors?

Insulin leads to decreased numbers of insulin receptors

16

Describe insulin levels in T2DM?

High early on, but low later in disease because of beta cell exhaustion

17

Findings in HHS?

No ketones, hyperglycemia, hyperosmolar dehydration

18

Leading cause of death in diabetics?

CVD (atherosclerosis due to nonenzymatic glycosylation of basement membranes)

19

NEG or small vessels causes...

arteriolosclerosis

20

Islet cell tumors (insulinomas) are usually associated with which inherited constellation of neoplasms?

MEN1

21

MEN 1= ______+ _______+ ______

insulinoma, parathyroid adenoma, pituitary adenoma

22

Symptoms of insulinomas?

Hypoglycemia, mental status changes relieved by glucose, increased C-peptide

23

"treatment resistant peptic ulcers"

Gastrinoma

24

"achlorhydria, choleithiasis, steatorrhea"

somatostatinoma

25

"watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, achlorhydria"

VIPoma