Pathoma: Adrenal Glands Flashcards Preview

Pathology Unit 5 > Pathoma: Adrenal Glands > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathoma: Adrenal Glands Deck (21):
1

What are the layers of the adrenal gland?

glomerulosa, fasciculata and reticularis

2

What layer of the adrenal gland makes mineral corticoids?

glomerulosa

3

What layer of the adrenal gland makes glucocorticoids?

fasciculata

4

What layer of the adrenal gland makes sex steroids?

reticularis

5

"excess cortisol syndrome"

Hypercortisolism/ Cushing disease

6

Symptoms of cushings?

Muscle weakness and thin extremities, moon facies, buffalo hump. abdnominal striae, HTN, osteoporosis, immune suppression

7

What can cause cushings?

1- exogenous corticosteroids

2- primary adrenal adenoma, hyperplasia or carcinoma

3- ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma


4- Paraneoplastic ACTH secretion

8

"excess aldosterone"

Hyperaldosteronism/ Conn syndrome

9

How does conn syndrome present?

Na retention, Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis

HTN

10

Most common cause of primary hyperaldosteronism?

sporadic adrenal hyperplasia

11

Renin level in primary hypealdosteronism?

decreased!

12

When is secondary hyperaldosteronism seen?

in activation of RAA system...aldosterone and renin will be increased

13

"excess sex steroids with hyperplasia of both adrenal glands"

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

14

Most common CAH?

Inherited 21- hydroxilase deficiency

15

What are the clinical symptoms of 21-hydroxlase defiency?

salt wasting (hyponatremia), hyperkalemia, hypovolemia, HTN, virilization, precocious puberty

16

"hemorrhagic necrosis of adrenal glands, lack of cortisol that exacerbates hypotension"

Acute adrenal insufficiency--> Waterhouse- Friderichsen Syndrome

17

What is addison's disease?

chronic adrenal insufficeincy due to destruction of the adrenal glands (autoimmune, TB, metastatic carcinoma)

18

Clinical features of Addison's disease?

Hypotension, hyponatremia, hypovolemia, hyperkalemia, weakness, hyperpigmentation, vomiting, diarrhea

19

What does the adrenal medulla produce in its chromaffin cells?

catecholamines

20

What is a pheochromocytoma?

tumor or chromaffin cells

21

What are the symptoms of pheochromocytoma?

episodic HTN, HA, palpitations, tachycardia, sweating