Flashcards in Pathoma: Adrenal Glands Deck (21):
What are the layers of the adrenal gland?
glomerulosa, fasciculata and reticularis
What layer of the adrenal gland makes mineral corticoids?
What layer of the adrenal gland makes glucocorticoids?
What layer of the adrenal gland makes sex steroids?
"excess cortisol syndrome"
Hypercortisolism/ Cushing disease
Symptoms of cushings?
Muscle weakness and thin extremities, moon facies, buffalo hump. abdnominal striae, HTN, osteoporosis, immune suppression
What can cause cushings?
1- exogenous corticosteroids
2- primary adrenal adenoma, hyperplasia or carcinoma
3- ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma
4- Paraneoplastic ACTH secretion
Hyperaldosteronism/ Conn syndrome
How does conn syndrome present?
Na retention, Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis
Most common cause of primary hyperaldosteronism?
sporadic adrenal hyperplasia
Renin level in primary hypealdosteronism?
When is secondary hyperaldosteronism seen?
in activation of RAA system...aldosterone and renin will be increased
"excess sex steroids with hyperplasia of both adrenal glands"
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Most common CAH?
Inherited 21- hydroxilase deficiency
What are the clinical symptoms of 21-hydroxlase defiency?
salt wasting (hyponatremia), hyperkalemia, hypovolemia, HTN, virilization, precocious puberty
"hemorrhagic necrosis of adrenal glands, lack of cortisol that exacerbates hypotension"
Acute adrenal insufficiency--> Waterhouse- Friderichsen Syndrome
What is addison's disease?
chronic adrenal insufficeincy due to destruction of the adrenal glands (autoimmune, TB, metastatic carcinoma)
Clinical features of Addison's disease?
Hypotension, hyponatremia, hypovolemia, hyperkalemia, weakness, hyperpigmentation, vomiting, diarrhea
What does the adrenal medulla produce in its chromaffin cells?
What is a pheochromocytoma?
tumor or chromaffin cells