Flashcards in Bone physiology Deck (69)
What symptoms may present with Paget's?
Often asymptomatic but bone pain or deformity and deafness
How is Paget's diagnosed?
Increased alk phos
How is Paget's treated?
Which defect causes osteogenesis imperfecta?
What is associated with osteogenesis imperfecta?
Which receptor on the parathyroid is for calcium?
Ca sensitive receptor
What kind of receptor is CaSR?
G protein coupled
How is vitamin D stored in the liver?
What does the liver convert it to?
What does the kidney turn it into?
What are symptoms of acute hypercalcaemia?
What are symptoms of chronic hypercalcaemia?
What are major causes of hypercalcaemia?
What drugs can cause hypercalcaemia?
What will blood results be for 1o hyperparathyroidism?
Raised serum Ca
Raised serum PTH
Increased urine Ca excretion
What other serum protein is important for diagnosing malignancy?
Alkaline phosphate (raised in malignancy)
What is the treatment for acute hypercalcaemia?
Loop diuretics once rehydrated
Bisphosphonates will lower Ca
How is 1o primary hyperparathyroidism managed?
Surgery or nothing
When should surgery for 1o hyperparathyroidism be indicated?
If end organ damage e.g. renal stones, osteoporosis, gastric ulcers or renal disease
Or if calcium is v high (>2.85)
What is 2o hyperparathryoidism?
Physiological response to low Ca
What is 3o hyperparathyroidism?
Overactive PTH after many years of 2o
Which genetic syndromes are closely linked with hyperparathyroidism?
What is FHH?
Familial hypocalciuric hypocalcaemia
What signs will be present in FHH?
Low Ca urine
How does PTH work on the gut?
Causes it to absorb Ca and therefore increased serum Ca levels
In which fish is vitamin D high in?
What are the symptoms of hypocalcaemia?
Paraesthesia in extremities and perioral
tetany and cramps
Fatigue and myopathy
Long QT on ECG
What are the causes of hypocalcaemia?
Vitamin D deficiency
What is the treatment for acute hypocalcaemia?
10ml 10% IV calcium gluconate over 10 mins