Flashcards in Bone Structure and Axial Skeleton Deck (53):
What does the axial skeleton consist of?
Skull, vertebral column (including the sacrum), ribs, and sternum
What does the appendicular skeleton consist of?
consists of bones of the upper and lower extremities including the pectoral girdle (clavicle and scapula) and pelvic girdle (ilium, ischium and pubis)
What are the 5 functions of the skeletal system?
Store minerals and lipids (calcium reserves)
Produce red and white blood cells, platelets
Protection; surrounds delicate organs
Leverage; enables movements
Where would flat bones be located?
Many in skull, ribs
Sesamoid bones are what
Small bones that develop in tendons, patella
What are long bones
Elongated slender bones, humerus
What are irregular bones?
Complex shapes, Ex-vertebrae
What are short bones?
Small and box shaped. Ex-tarsal bones
Large bumps on femur
shaft of long bone
small bumps on humerus
end of bone where 2 bones articulate
bump or projection
Define canal or meatus
large passageway through bone
air-filled chamber in bone
small passageway through bone
irregular opening or gap
not so prominent ridge
sharp, pointed process
extension of a bone that creates an angle with respect to the main body of the bone
Expanded area at each end of a bone
Zone between the epiphysis and shaft of bone
Long, tubular shaft of bone
Describe spongy bone
Open latticework of bone oriented to withstand stresses from many directions; very light
Describe compact bone
Densely packed, very strong bone
Describe medullary cavity
Filled with marrow involved in the production of blood cells
are the basic functional unit of mature, compact bone. Concentric layers of matrix have canaliculi radiating through them interconnecting lacunae containing osteocytes and reaching vascular passageways.
are the mature bones cells that produce bone matrix.
are immature precursors to osteocytes and produce new bone matrix. When they are surrounded by bone matrix, they become osteocytes.
Osteogenic Cells do what
are stem cells that divide to form osteoblasts.
Osteoclasts do what
are cells that remove bone matrix, releasing stored minerals.
What are the bones of the cranium
Frontal Occipital Parietal Temporal Sphenoid Ethmoid
What are the Bones of the face
Maxilla Zygomatic Mandible Nasal Palatine Vomer Inferior nasal concha
Name the bones of the orbit
Frontal Sphenoid Lacrimal Ethmoid Palatine Zygomatic Maxilla
What are the reasons for foramen
passageways for cranial nerves (I-XII), blood vessels and the spinal cord.
What are the reasons for foramen of the face and orbit
Each of these foramina is a passageway for a branch of the major sensory nerve to the face – the trigeminal nerve
Name the 5 sinuses
frontal, ethmoid, nasal, maxillary, sphenoid
What are paranasal sinuses
are air-filled chambers connected to the nasal cavities. They lighten the skull, allow the voice to resonate, and are lined by an extensive area of mucous epithelium.
What are the atlas(C1) and axis(c2) specialized to do
support and stabilize the head
Where does the atlas (C1) articulate
What are the unique features of C1 and C2
C1 has no vertebral body and no spinous process
C2 has a prominent dens on the superior surface of its body
What are the function of transverse foramen in C1 and C2
For passage and protection of the vertebral artery
What are the types of vertebrae and how many are there of each?
What bones do thoracic vertebrae articulate with
ribs so they have articular surfaces on their bodies and transverse processes to accommodate attachments of ribs.
Transverse and Superior costal facet
Describe the sacrum
a single bone that used to be five sacral vertebrae during development. It attaches the axial skeleton to the pelvic girdle
What is the coccyx
a single bone that used to be four to five coccygeal vertebrae during development
Where are the true ribs (1-7) connected
They connect to the sternum by individual costal cartilages
Where are ribs 8-10 connected
They connect to the sternum through shared costal cartilages
Where do the floating ribs 11-12 connect
They have no connection to the sternum