Bone Structure and Axial Skeleton Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bone Structure and Axial Skeleton Deck (53):
1

What does the axial skeleton consist of?

Skull, vertebral column (including the sacrum), ribs, and sternum

2

What does the appendicular skeleton consist of?

consists of bones of the upper and lower extremities including the pectoral girdle (clavicle and scapula) and pelvic girdle (ilium, ischium and pubis)

3

What are the 5 functions of the skeletal system?

Support
Store minerals and lipids (calcium reserves)
Produce red and white blood cells, platelets
Protection; surrounds delicate organs
Leverage; enables movements

4

Where would flat bones be located?

Many in skull, ribs

5

Sesamoid bones are what

Small bones that develop in tendons, patella

6

What are long bones

Elongated slender bones, humerus

7

What are irregular bones?

Complex shapes, Ex-vertebrae

8

What are short bones?

Small and box shaped. Ex-tarsal bones

9

Define trochanter

Large bumps on femur

10

Define diaphysis

shaft of long bone

11

Define tubercle

small bumps on humerus

12

Define facet

articular surfaces

13

Define condyle

end of bone where 2 bones articulate

14

Define process

bump or projection

15

Define canal or meatus

large passageway through bone

16

Define sinus

air-filled chamber in bone

17

Define foramen

small passageway through bone

18

Define fissure

irregular opening or gap

19

Define crest

prominent ridge

20

Define fossa

shallow depression

21

Define line

not so prominent ridge

22

Define spine

sharp, pointed process

23

Define ramus

extension of a bone that creates an angle with respect to the main body of the bone

24

Define epiphysis

Expanded area at each end of a bone

25

Define metaphysis

Zone between the epiphysis and shaft of bone

26

Define diaphysis

Long, tubular shaft of bone

27

Describe spongy bone

Open latticework of bone oriented to withstand stresses from many directions; very light

28

Describe compact bone

Densely packed, very strong bone

29

Describe medullary cavity

Filled with marrow involved in the production of blood cells

30

Describe osteons

are the basic functional unit of mature, compact bone. Concentric layers of matrix have canaliculi radiating through them interconnecting lacunae containing osteocytes and reaching vascular passageways.

31

Define osteocytes

are the mature bones cells that produce bone matrix.

32

Define Osteoblasts

are immature precursors to osteocytes and produce new bone matrix. When they are surrounded by bone matrix, they become osteocytes.

33

Osteogenic Cells do what

are stem cells that divide to form osteoblasts.

34

Osteoclasts do what

are cells that remove bone matrix, releasing stored minerals.

35

What are the bones of the cranium

Frontal Occipital Parietal Temporal Sphenoid Ethmoid

36

What are the Bones of the face

Maxilla Zygomatic Mandible Nasal Palatine Vomer Inferior nasal concha

37

Name the bones of the orbit

Frontal Sphenoid Lacrimal Ethmoid Palatine Zygomatic Maxilla

38

What are the reasons for foramen

passageways for cranial nerves (I-XII), blood vessels and the spinal cord.

39

What are the reasons for foramen of the face and orbit

Each of these foramina is a passageway for a branch of the major sensory nerve to the face – the trigeminal nerve

40

Name the 5 sinuses

frontal, ethmoid, nasal, maxillary, sphenoid

41

What are paranasal sinuses

are air-filled chambers connected to the nasal cavities. They lighten the skull, allow the voice to resonate, and are lined by an extensive area of mucous epithelium.

42

What are the atlas(C1) and axis(c2) specialized to do

support and stabilize the head

43

Where does the atlas (C1) articulate

Occipital condyles

44

What are the unique features of C1 and C2

C1 has no vertebral body and no spinous process
C2 has a prominent dens on the superior surface of its body

45

What are the function of transverse foramen in C1 and C2

For passage and protection of the vertebral artery

46

What are the types of vertebrae and how many are there of each?

Cervical-7
Thoracic-12
Lumbar-5
Sacral-5 fused
Coccygeal-4 fused

47

What bones do thoracic vertebrae articulate with

ribs so they have articular surfaces on their bodies and transverse processes to accommodate attachments of ribs.

Transverse and Superior costal facet

48

Describe the sacrum

a single bone that used to be five sacral vertebrae during development. It attaches the axial skeleton to the pelvic girdle

49

What is the coccyx

a single bone that used to be four to five coccygeal vertebrae during development

50

Where are the true ribs (1-7) connected

They connect to the sternum by individual costal cartilages

51

Where are ribs 8-10 connected

They connect to the sternum through shared costal cartilages

52

Where do the floating ribs 11-12 connect

They have no connection to the sternum

53

Which ribs are considered to be false ribs

Ribs 8-12