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Flashcards in Primary Tissues Good Version Deck (48):

What are the 4 types of primary tissues?

Epithelial, connective, neural, muscle.


What does epithelial tissue do?

covers exposed surfaces(skin), lines internal passageways, forms secretory glands (sweat/salvatory)


What does connective tissue do?

Fills internal spaces, provides structural support, stores energy as fat


What does muscle tissue do?

Contracts to produce movement, includes skeletal muscle(voluntary), cardiac muscles, and smooth muscles


What does neural tissue do?

Conducts electrical impulses, carries information(telling muscles to contract, glands to excrete), very specialized


What 2 categories does Epithelial tissue include?

Epithelia and glands


What are the 2 types of glands and what are their functions?

Exocrine glands- secrete onto external surfaces or into passageways

Endocrine glands- secrete hormones or their precursors that enter the blood stream


What do motile cilia do?

Typically associated with epithelial cells that line the passageways respiratory and reproductive tracts


What is the function of microvilli?

Typically associated with epithelial cells that line the passageways of the digestive and urinary tracts


What is the function of junctional complexes

between adjacent epithelial cells provide structural stability to the epithelium and also function to make the epithelium an effective barrier between what’s in the lumen of the passageway and deeper tissues


What is the difference between simple epithelia and stratified epithelia?

Simple epithelia are found where only a single layer of cells is necessary and Stratified epithelia are found in areas that need protection from mechanical or chemical stresses


Simple squamous epithelia

located in regions where diffusion takes place or where a slick slippery surface reduces friction.

lungs for gas exchange
lining body cavities
inner surface of heart and blood vessels


Simple cuboidal epithelia

are located in regions where secretion and absorption take place.
kidney tubules thyroid follicles


Simple columnar epithelia

are located also in regions where secretion and absorption take place; these cells may contain microvilli, which increase surface area for absorption.
small intestine gall bladder uterine tubes


Stratified squamous epithelia

are located in regions where mechanical or chemical stresses are significant.
lining of the mouth esophagus


Stratified cuboidal epithelia

are fairly rare. sweat gland ducts
mammary gland ducts


Stratified columnar epithelia

are typically found in two or more layers of cells with the most superficial layer truly columnar in shape.
salivary gland ducts pancreatic ducts


Epithelia are avascular, what does that mean?

the cells must obtain nutrients by diffusion or absorption across either the apical, exposed or basal attached surfaces


What are the 6 functions of connective tissue?

Establish a structural framework for the body
• Transport fluids and dissolved materials
• Protect delicate organs
• Support, surround and interconnect other types of tissue
• Store energy in the form of fat
• Defend the body from invading microorganisms


All types of connective tissues have three common elements, what are they?

1. Specialized cells
2. Extracellular protein fibers
3. A fluid “ground substance”

2+3 make up the matrix


What are the 3 types of loose connective tissue?

Areolar, adipose, reticular


Describe areolar tissue

is the most common form of connective tissue proper. It is the general “packing material” in the body.


Describe adipose tissue

is commonly referred to as “fat” and is found deep to the skin in many locations but especially the flanks, buttocks, and breasts. It also provides padding in the orbits, in the abdominal and pelvic cavities and around the kidneys.


Describe reticular tissue

forms a tough but flexible network of fibers that provide support for cells and resist distortion for the liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow.


What are the 3 types of dense connective tissue?

Dense regular connective tissue, Dense irregular connective tissue, Elastic connective tissue


Describe dense regular connective tissue

found in tendons and ligaments that interconnect bones or stabilize the positions of internal organs.


Describe dense irregular connective tissue

is a meshwork of fibers typically found in areas subjected to stresses from multiple directions such as deep layers of skin and capsules that form sheaths around organs and nerves.


Describe elastic connective tissue

because it is springy and resilient, is found between vertebrae and in the walls of large blood vessels, especially arteries such as the aorta.


Describe fluid connective tissue

have a fluid matrix containing proteins but not typically fibers. The watery matrix of blood is called plasma. Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are the formed elements of blood that are suspended in plasma.


What is lymph

formed as interstitial fluid drains into lymphatic vessels that return tissue fluid to venous blood.


What are the 2 supporting connective tissues?

Cartilage and bone


What is cartilage?

has a gel matrix containing lacunae that house the cells of cartilage, chondrocytes. The physical properties of cartilage depend on the molecular composition of the matrix and the presence of fibers


Describe bone

has a matrix made up principally of calcium salts and collagen fibers that, in combination, give bone its strength yet flexible-but-resistant-to- shattering characteristics. Osteons (pictured) are the principal functional unit of bone with a central canal containing blood vessels that provide nutrients to osteocytes in lacunae that are interconnected by canaliculi.


Mucous membrane

line passageways and chambers that communicate with the exterior, e.g., digestive, respiratory, reproductive and urinary tracts.


Serous membranes

line body cavities: pleurae (lines thoracic cavity and covers lungs), pericardium (lines pericardial cavity and covers heart), and peritoneum, lines abdomino-pelvic cavity and covers organs.


What does the cutaneous membrane do

covers the surface of the body


What is superficial fascia and where is it located?

between skin and underlying organs; contains areolar and adipose loose connective tissues


What is deep fascia and what does it do?

Dense connective tissue investing muscle and bound to other connective tissue structures


What is subserous fascia and what does it do?

Between deep fascia and serous membranes lining body cavities; areolar tissue


What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?

Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth


Describe skeletal muscle

moves or stabilizes the skeleton, guards entrances and exits to the digestive, respiratory and urinary tracts, generate heat and protect internal organs. Cells are long, striated, and have multiple nuclei.


Describe cardiac muscle

moves blood and maintains blood pressure. Cardiac muscle cells are short, branched, and striated. Intercalated disks are intercellular junctions that synchronize cardiocyte contractions.


Describe smooth muscle

moves food, urine and reproductive tract secretions and regulates the diameter of respiratory passages and blood vessels. Cells are short, spindle-shaped, non- striated and have a single central nucleus.


Describe neural tissue

specialized to conduct electrical impulses from one region of the body to another. Most neural tissue in the body is found in the brain and spinal cord. Neurons and their supporting cells, neuroglia, comprise neural tissue.


What is the control center for the cell

neuron's cell body


What does a dendrite do?

receive information from other neurons and transmit that information toward the cell body


What does an axon do

conducts information away from the cell body to other cells


What are the functions of neuroglia?

Maintain physical structure of neural tissue
Repair neural tissue framework after injury
Perform phagocytosis
Provide nutrients to neurons
Regulate the composition of the interstitial fluid surrounding neurons