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Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (42):
1

The respiratory system, digestive system, urinary system and cardiovascular system work together to support cells and tissues of the body that would otherwise not be able to sustain themselves

The respiratory system, digestive system, urinary system and cardiovascular system work together to support cells and tissues of the body that would otherwise not be able to sustain themselves

2

The ___________ is the conduit for delivery and removal of what is necessary to support cells and tissues of the body

cardiovascular system

3

What are the organs of the urinary system?

Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra

4

The ______ are metabolically very active

Kidneys

5

What produces urine?

Kidneys

6

At rest, kidneys receive about ____% of the cardiac output

25%

7

The two kidneys perform the ______ functions of the urinary system

excretory

8

The ______ receive the urine from the kidneys and conduct it to the urinary bladder

ureters

9

Urine movement involves a combination of gravity and the peristaltic contractions of smooth muscle in the walls of the ______

ureters

10

The ______ receives and stores urine prior to its elimination from the body

urinary bladder

11

What is urination caused by?

contraction of smooth muscle layers in the walls of the urinary bladder

12

The ______ is a passageway that conducts urine from the urinary bladder to the exterior

urethra

13

What are the functions of the urinary system?

-Adjusting blood volume and blood pressure
-Regulating blood plasma concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, and other ions
-Stabilizing blood pH
-Conserving valuable nutrients by preventing their loss in urine
-Removing drugs and toxins from the bloodstream

14

Urine production functions to maintain _________ by regulating the volume and composition of blood, which includes the excretion of metabolic waste products

homeostasis

15

The kidneys lie behind the parietal peritoneum that lines the abdominal cavity; they are considered to be in a __________ position.

retroperitoneal

16

The ________ covers the outer surface of the kidney, it also lines the renal sinus

fibrous capsule

17

_______ is an internal cavity within the kidney

renal sinus

18

The outer and inner linings of the kidney are continuous at the _______

hilum

19

Within the renal sinus, the ____________ stabilizes the positions of the ureter, the renal blood vessels, and renal nerves

fibrous capsule

20

The ______ is the superficial portion of the kidney, in contact with the fibrous capsule.

Renal cortex, the cortex is reddish brown and granular

21

The _______ extends from the renal cortex to the renal sinus

Renal medulla

22

A _______ is a conical structure extending from the cortex to a tip called the renal papilla

renal pyramid

23

A ______ is a band of granular tissue that separates adjacent pyramids

renal column

24

A _____ consists of a renal pyramid, the overlying area of renal cortex, and adjacent tissues of the renal columns.

Kidney lobe

25

How many kidney lobes are in each kidney

Each kidney contains 6-18 kidney lobes

26

Where does urine production occur in the kidneys

Kidney lobes

27

_________ collects urine produced by a single kidney lobe

Minor calyx

28

_________ is formed by the fusion of 3-4 minor calyces

Major calyx

29

The ______ is the functional unit of the kidney responsible for filtration of blood and carrying the filtrate through its tubular structure and the collecting system of the kidney to ultimately leave the kidney as urine

nephron

30

_______ are the most numerous nephrons. They are responsible for most of the regulatory functions of the kidneys.

Cortical nephrons

31

___________ play a crucial role in establishing conditions in the renal medulla that are essential to water conservation and the production of concentrated urine

Juxtamedullary nephrons

32

Each kidney is highly vascularized with a very complex circulation provided to the renal cortex where the relationship between complex capillary networks and the tubular structure of the nephron facilitates filtration and formation of urine

Each kidney is highly vascularized with a very complex circulation provided to the renal cortex where the relationship between complex capillary networks and the tubular structure of the nephron facilitates filtration and formation of urine

33

______ is a cup-shaped chamber into which filtrate flows

Bowman's capsule

34

What is glomerulus

capillary network through which filtration occurs

35

What is proximal tubule

initial segment of the renal tubule responsible for the major reabsorption of water, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, and ions from the filtrate

36

What is distal tubule

Last segment of the renal tubule responsible for a small amount of reabsorption of water and ions

37

What does the collecting duct do

Receives the urine from the individual nephrons and performs final adjustments in urine volume and composition before delivering it into a minor calyx

38

What is loop of henle with capillary network

Middle segment of the renal tubule responsible for reabsorption of water and ions

39

The kidneys and ureters are _________ in their positions

retroperitoneal

40

Each _____ crosses the common iliac artery and vein as it enters the pelvis

ureter

41

The urinary bladder is filled by the ______ and drained by the ______

ureters
urethra

42

What is the trigone?

a triangular region or tissue, particularly the area at the base of the urinary bladder, between the openings of the ureters and urethra