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Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (93):
1

The __________ system is the conduit
for delivery and removal of what is
necessary to support cells and tissues of
the body

cardiovascular

2

A ________ is a double sheet of peritoneal
membrane; the peritoneal membrane lines
the abdominal cavity. Mesenteries stabilize
the position of organs attached to the
abdominal wall and prevent tangling of
intestines during movement of the tract or
sudden changes in body position.

mesentery

3

What does the mesentery consist of

Mesothelium, areolar tissue, mesothelium

4

What are the major layers of the digestive tract

Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis Externa, serosa

5

Mucosa

epithelial lining and underlying connective tissue

6

Submucosa

connective tissue containing blood vessels and
glands

7

Muscularis externa

smooth muscle in two layers – inner circular
layer and outer longitudinal layer

8

Serosa/adventitia

the serosa is a peritoneal membrane covering;
it is not present in oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and rectum – instead they have an adventitia

9

The ________ is especially constructed to
facilitate absorption of nutrients from the
lumen of the tract

mucosa

10

The _________ in the upper part of the tract
(oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus) is
stratified squamous where the rest of the
tract is simple columnar

epithelium

11

_________ and ________ increase
surface area for absorption

Circular folds, intestinal villi

12

__________ in the mucosa and
submucosa produce secretions that are
carried through ducts to epithelial surfaces.

Secretory glands

13

The ___________ has smooth muscle
within it that change the shape of the lumen
and move the circular folds and villi.

muscularis mucosa

14

What are the 2 secretory glands of the digestive tract?

Mucosal gland, submucosal gland

15

What are the 4 components of the mucosa

Epithelial layer, Villi, lamina propia, muscularis mucosae

16

Describe the movement of food through the digestive tract

1) Bolus of food arrives in the digestive system
2) Circular muscles contract behind bolus
3) Longitudinal muscles ahead of bolus contract
4) Contraction in circular muscle layer forces bolus forward.

17

________ is the process of smooth
muscle contraction by which materials
are moved from one portion of the
digestive tract to another. Longitudinally oriented
smooth muscle contracts and
shortens the segment of gut ahead of the
food bolus, then circularly-oriented
smooth muscle contracts to push it
forward

Peristalsis

18

________ is the process of smooth muscle contraction by which materials are churned and fragmented, mixing the contents of the tract with secretions. These muscle contractions don’t happen in any set pattern so contents are not propelled in any particular direction

Segmentation

19

All movements of the gut are under the control of three primary mechanisms:

• Autonomic nervous system
• Hormones produced by the digestive
tract itself
• Local factors such as changes in pH,
mechanical distortion of the gut wall, or chemical signals released from the mucosa and/or specific nutrients

20

What are the major organs of the digestive tract?

Oral cavity(mouth), Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small/Large Intestine

21

What are the accessory organs of the digestive tract

Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas

22

What is the function of the oral cavity for digestive purposes?

Mechanical processing with accessory organs (teeth and tongue), moistening, mixing with salivary secretions

23

What is the function of the pharynx for digestive purposes?

Muscular propulsion of materials into the esophagus

24

What is the function of the esophagus for digestive purposes?

transport of materials to the stomach

25

What is the function of the stomach for digestive purposes?

Chemical breakdown of materials by acid and enzymes; mechanical processing through muscular contractions

26

What is the function of the small intestine for digestive purposes?

Enzymatic digestion and absorption of water, organic substrates, vitamins, and ions

27

What is the function of the large intestine for digestive purposes?

Dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials in preparation for elimination

28

What are the functions of the digestive tract?

Ingestion, digestion, absorption.

29

What is the compact material created from digestion?

feces

30

The discharge of feces from the body is called what

defecation

31

What makes up the superior boundary of the oral cavity?

Hard and soft palate

32

What makes up the posterior boundary of the oral cavity?

uvula, palatine tonsil, root of the tongue, pair of lingual tonsils

33

What makes up the anterior and lateral boundary of the oral cavity?

Labia, cheeks

34

What makes up the inferior boundary of the oral cavity?

Floor of the mouth inferior to the tongue

35

______ is the matrix of the tooth, similar in construction to the matrix of bone

Dentin

36

The _____ of the tooth projects into the oral cavity from the surface of the gums

Crown

37

The _____ of each tooth sits in a bony cavity called an alveolus, or tooth socket

root

38

What is the hardest biologically manufactured substance

Enamel, it contains calcium phosphate in a crystal line form

39

What are the 4 types of teeth

Incisors, cuspids, bicuspids, molars

40

Incisors

blade-shaped teeth located at the front of the mouth. They are useful for clipping or cutting. Have a single root.

41

Cuspids

or canine teeth, are conical with a sharp ridgeline and a pointed tip. They are used for tearing or slashing. Cuspids have a single root

42

Bicuspids

or premolars, have flattened crowns with prominent ridges. They crush, mash, and grind. Bicuspids have one or two roots.

43

Molars

have very large, flattened crowns with prominent ridges adapted for crushing and grinding. Molars in the upper jaw typically have 3 roots, while those in the lower jaw usually have 2 roots.

44

The alveolar processes of the maxillae and the mandible form the ________

dental arcades

45

What is the correct name for baby teeth

deciduous teeth

46

Deciduous teeth or “baby teeth” are teeth of ________ ________ By the time children are 2 years old, they have 20 deciduous teeth.

primary dentition

47

Permanent teeth replace deciduous teeth and are considered _______________

Secondary dentition

48

Additional molars are included in the secondary dentition and the number of permanent teeth is brought to

32

49

The _______ is the space common to both the respiratory and digestive tracts. It is divided into three regions based on its association with portions of either the respiratory or digestive tract

pharynx

50

The ________ is a muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach. It contains the layers in its wall typical of portions of the digestive tract, including the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa and adventitia. The esophagus passes through the diaphragm as it moves from the thoracic cavity into the abdominal cavity

esophagus

51

Another term for swallowing

deglutition

52

What are 3 phases of swallowing

• Buccal phase – a voluntary phase in which a bolus of food is moved into the oropharynx by movement of the tongue
• Pharyngeal phase – contraction of pharyngeal constrictors move the bolus through the pharynx
• Esophageal phase – in the esophagus, the bolus is moved toward the stomach by peristalsis

53

What is the function of the lesser omentum

Stabilizes the position of the stomach and provides an access route for blood vessels and other structures entering or leaving the liver.

54

What is the function of the greater omentum

forms an enormous pouch that extends inferiorly between the body wall and the anterior surface of the small intestine.

55

The _______ _______ is lined by the parietal peritoneum, which lines the inner abdominal wall, and the visceral peritoneum, which covers the organs

peritoneal cavity

56

The relationship of the organs to the ________ ________ are similar to that of the heart in the pericardial cavity and the lungs in the pleural cavities.

peritoneal cavity

57

What is the fundus?

portion of the stomach that is superior to the junction between the stomach and the esophagus. The fundus contacts the inferior, posterior surfaces of the diaphragm.

58

What is the cardia?

Cardia is the superior, medial portion of the stomach within 3 cm of the junction between the stomach and the esophagus

59

What is the pylorus

The pylorus forms the sharp curve of the J. As mixing movements occur during digestion, the pylorus frequently changes shape

60

What are rugae?

Prominent but temporary mucosal folds that allow the gastric lumen to expand

61

What are the functions of the stomach

• store and mechanically break down ingested food
• chemically breakdown food through the action of acid and enzymes
• produce intrinsic factor, a molecule necessary for the proper absorption and handling of vitamin B12, which is required for red blood cell production

62

What are the 3 segments of the small intestine?

Duodenum, jejunum, ileum

63

What is the duodenum?

Segment closest to the stomach. This portion of the small intestine is the "mixing bowl".

64

What is the jejunum?

The segment between the duodenum and the ileum and is marked by a sharp bend at its beginning

65

What is the ileum?

The final segment of the small intestine, also the longest, averaging 11.5 feet in length. It ends at the ileocecal valve.

66

Where does 90% of nutrient absorption occur?

small intestine

67

What are the functions of the large intestine?

• absorbs water and compacts intestinal contents into feces
• absorbs vitamins
• stores fecal material prior to defecation

68

Function of salivary glands?

produce mucous and enzyme secretions

69

______ stores and concentrates bile produced by
the liver

gallbladder

70

________ has exocrine cells that produce digestive enzymes and endocrine cells that produce insulin, glucagon and other hormones

pancreas

71

_______ has many digestive and metabolic functions

liver

72

Which 3 pairs of salivary glands produce saliva

Parotid glands
Submandibular glands
Sublingual glands

73

The _______ lie under either side of the tongue, covered by the mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth. These glands produce a mucous secretion that acts as a buffer and lubricant

Sublingual salivary glands

74

The _____ lie along the inner surface of the mandible within the mandibular groove.

submandibular salivary glands

75

The large _______ lie inferior to the zygomatic arch deep to the skin covering the lateral and posterior surface of the mandible.

parotid salivary glands

76

What is the largest viseral organ?

Liver

77

Where is the liver located?

It is located underneath the diaphragm predominantly on the right side of the abdominal cavity.

78

What marks the division between right and left lobes in the liver?

Falciform ligament

79

The porta hepatis includes _______

• Hepatic portal vein
• Hepatic artery proper
• Common bile duct

80

______ is caused by alcoholism, it damages the liver

cirrhosis

81

The ________ collect bile produced by the cells of the liver

right and left hepatic ducts

82

The hepatic ducts combine to form the _________

common hepatic duct

83

The __________ is formed by the union of the common hepatic duct and the cystic duct.

common bile duct

84

Where does the common bile duct empty into?

Small intestine

85

Bile salts in bile break apart fat droplets in a process called _________, aiding in the digestion of fat

emulsification

86

Why do gallstones form?

• Too much cholesterol and too little bile salts
• Incomplete and infrequent emptying of the gall
bladder
• Presence of proteins that promote crystallization
of cholesterol

87

The ________ produces pancreatic juice that is a combination of water, ions and enzymes that aid in digestion

pancreas

88

The pancreatic duct meets the common bile duct and delivers _______ secretions to the small intestine

exocrine

89

What are the major pancreatic enzymes

Pancreatic amylase
Pancreatic lipase
Pancreatic nucleases
Pancreatic proteolytic enzymes

90

What is the function of pancreatic amylase

breaks down carbohydrates

91

What is the function of pancreatic lipase

breaks down fats

92

What is the function of pancreatic nucleases

breaks down RNA and DNA

93

What is the function of pancreatic proteolytic enzymes

breaks down proteins