Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (36):
1

What are the mediators for endocrine communication

Hormones

2

Similarities between communication in the endocrine system and in the nervous system:

• Both systems rely on the release of chemicals that bind to specific receptors on their target cells.
• The two systems share many chemical messengers.
• Both systems are regulated by negative feedback control mechanisms.
• Both systems function to preserve homeostasis by coordinating and regulating the activities of other cells, tissues, organs and systems.

3

What are the endocrine organs

Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreatic islets, pineal gland, parathyroid glands

4

______ is a part of the diencephalon of the brain

Hypothalamus

5

The hypothalamus has neurons within it that secrete regulatory hormones that have a direct influence on hormone-secreting cells in the ________

pituitary gland

6

The hypothalamus is located just superior to the pituitary gland, which is found in the ________, a depression found within the sphenoid bone at the base of the skull.

sella turcica

7

The pituitary gland releases hormones under the influence of the hypothalamus’ control that control the secretory activities of cells in endocrine glands elsewhere in the body

The pituitary gland releases hormones under the influence of the hypothalamus’ control that control the secretory activities of cells in endocrine glands elsewhere in the body

8

By secreting specific regulatory hormones, the hypothalamus controls the production and release of hormones from the ________

anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

9

Neurons in the hypothalamus release hormones at capillary beds in a region of the hypothalamus called the _________

median eminence

10

The chemical signaling between the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary is accomplished by a capillary network called the ____________

hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system

11

Hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary under the influence of the hypothalamus then are distributed through the systemic circulation to cells in target endocrine glands throughout the body

Hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary under the influence of the hypothalamus then are distributed through the systemic circulation to cells in target endocrine glands throughout the body

12

Neurons within specific nuclei (collections of neurons) in the hypothalamus send their axons into the _________ where they release hormones at capillary beds. The released hormones then travel in the systemic circulation to have influences on cells, tissues and systems in other parts of the body.

posterior lobe of the pituitary gland

13

What are the hormones of the posterior lobe of pituitary gland?

ADH (antidiuretic hormone), OXT (Oxytocin)

14

Describe ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

In kidney
Function: water balance

15

What is the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland called?

Neurohypophysis

16

What is the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland called?

Adenohypophysis

17

Describe OXT (Oxytocin)

In the uterus
Function: Smooth muscle contraction

18

What are the hormones of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland?

1) TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone)
2) ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)
3) Gonadotropins (FSH and LH)
-Follicle stimulating hormone
- Luteinizing hormone
4) GH (Growth hormone)
5) PRL (Prolactin)
6) MSH (Melanocyte stimulating hormone)

19

Describe TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone)

Thyroid Gland
Function: Stimulates production of thyroid hormones

20

Describe ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)

Adrenal gland
Function: Stimulates production of steroid hormones

21

Describe Gonadotropins (FSH and LH)

Ovary and Testis
Function: Stimulates production of hormones regulating reproduction in males and females

22

Describe GH (Growth hormone)

Musculoskeletal system
Function: Stimulates cell and tissue growth

23

Describe PRL (Prolactin)

Mammary gland
Function: Stimulates mammary gland development

24

Describe MSH (Melanocyte stimulating hormone)

Stimulates production of melanin in skin

25

Hormone secretion is controlled through ________

negative feedback mechanisms

26

Hormone secretion is controlled through negative feedback mechanisms. Most commonly, the following is what occurs:

• The hypothalamus releases a releasing hormone (RH) that triggers the release of a hormone from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland (Hormone 1)
• The pituitary hormone (Hormone 1) stimulates release of a hormone from the target organ (Hormone 2)
• The hormone from the target organ (Hormone 2) suppresses the release of both the hypothalamic releasing hormone (RH) and the pituitary hormone (Hormone 1)

27

The thyroid gland is located on the anterior surface of the trachea just inferior to the thyroid cartilage of the larynx. Its left and right lobes are connected by the ______

Isthmus

28

What should you think of when you hear Thyroid Gland

"Stimulation of cell and tissue metabolism"

29

What should you think of when you hear Parathyroid glands?

"calcium homeostasis"

30

What should you think when you hear Adrenal glands?

"water and electrolyte balance; glucose metabolism in response to stress; sex hormones"

31

The ________ portion of the pancreas produces enzymes that assist in the digestion of food

exocrine

32

The endocrine pancreas produces ____________, both hormones that are responsible for the regulation of blood glucose levels

insulin and glucagon

33

When blood glucose levels increase, cells in the pancreas secrete insulin, which stimulates glucose transport of glucose across cell membranes

When blood glucose levels increase, cells in the pancreas secrete insulin, which stimulates glucose transport of glucose across cell membranes

34

When blood glucose levels fall, other populations of cells in the pancreas secrete glucagon, which stimulates glycogen breakdown and glucose release by the liver.

When blood glucose levels fall, other populations of cells in the pancreas secrete glucagon, which stimulates glycogen breakdown and glucose release by the liver.

35

What is the main function of the pancreas?

regulation of blood glucose levels

36

What should you think when you hear pineal gland?

“regulating processes that follow a circadian or day/night cycle pattern”