How does fat necrosis present on examination?
Painless palpable mass
DDx for a malignant mass
What are some benign mimics of malignancy?
What type of gene is HER2?
What is ductal carcinoma in situ?
Epithelial neoplastic ductal cells that haven't crossed the basement membrane
No involvement of vessels or lymphatics
Presents as mass or calcification
Unable to metastasize
For what type of breast cancers is herceptin indicated?
What is usual duct hyperplasia?
3 or more cells above the basement membrane
1.5-2RR for breast cancer in 15-20 years
What are the prognostic factor for breast Ca?
Lymph node status
Completeness of excision
Oestrogen and progesterone receptor status
What determines the risk of recurrence with DCIS?
Size of DCIS
Pattern of growth
Presence of necrosis
What is more common, ductal or lobular carcinoma?
What are some risk factors for breast Ca?
First degree relative with breast cancer
Estrogen exposure HRT
Age of menarche
First live birth
What is aypical ductal hyperplasia?
Almost like ductal carcinoma in situ
Requires increased surveilance
What are type of genes are BRCA1 and BRCA2?
DNA repair genes
What is Mammary duct ectasia?
Causes ill defined, benign lumps
Can mimic more serious conditions
For what type of breast cancers is tamoxifen indicated?
ER+ and PR+ = Good response
ER+ and PR- = Low or intermediate response
ER- and PR- = poor response
What is periductal mastitis?
Idiopathic condition associated with smoking
Nipple ducts become blocked and painful maybe infected