What is a clinical sign of hepatoma?
Occasionally a systolic arterial bruit is heard over the liver as the hepatoma is highly vascular
What finding on Fe studies is diagnostics for haemochromatosis?
A transferrin saturation of >65%
What is the diagnostic test for hepatocellular carcinoma?
Serum alpha-fetoprotein may be raised (but is normal within 1/3 of patients)
What are the mainstays of treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma?
Surgical resection if possible
Chemoembolisation or embolisation alone
What is diaphoresis?
Perspiration or profuse sweating
What are the signs of acute hepatitis?
Metabolic flap (asterixis)
Right hypochrondrium pain
What is Budd-Chiari syndrome? What are some causes of Budd-Chiari syndrome?
Obstruction of the venous outflow of the liver due to occlusion of the hepatic vein.
1/3 of cases unknown cause, other causes include: hypercoagulability states; polycythaemia vera, OCP, leukaemia
When does leukonychia occur (biochemistry wise)
Serum albumin <25g/L
What clotting factors are produced by the liver?
Factors II, VII, IX and X
What is Wilson's disease?
A rare inborn error of copper metabolism that results in copper deposition in various organs (liver, basal ganglia and cornea)
Defect in copper-transporting ATPase
What are the six extragastrointestinal sites of IBD manifestation?
Joints - axial or peripheral
What are some the 10 causes of colitis?
Infection - C. diff, Shigella, Salmonella, campylobacter, Entamoeba histolytica, giarrdia, cryptosporidium, CMV