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Flashcards in BRS-Behavioral Deck (73):
1

Four domains of development

Motor
Language
Psychosocial
Problem Solving

2

Developmental quotient equation + normal value

developmental age/ chronological age x 100
normal = 85+

3

Infants with CNS injury have stronger _____ but delayed _____

primitive reflexes; postural reactions

4

Birth:
gross motor
fine motor
language

abilities

turns head
fists hands
attenuates to voice

5

When is moro reflex present? hand grasp? rooting?

all start at birth
moro: to 4 months
hand grasp: to 1-3 months
rooting: to 6 months

6

When is atonic neck reflex present?

2-4 weeks --> 6 months

7

3-4
4-5
6-7
fine motor milestones

3-4: hands to midline
4-5: reaches
6-7 transfers object

8

9, 12 month fine motor milestones

immature, mature pincer

9

mature vs immature pincer

thumb and finger vs finger TIP

10

When should hand dominance be present?

18 months

11

Which developmental domain is most commonly delayed and is also the best predictor of intelligence

language

12

Optimal language acquisition occurs during

first two years of life

13

3,6,9 month speech abilities

3- cooing (vowels)
6- babbling (vowels + consonants)
9- jargoning

14

12,18 month words

12: 1-3
18: 20-50 + 2 word phrases

15

2,3 year language milestones

2 word --> 3 word sentences
half understood --> 75% understood

16

What are the three speech development phases

prespeech: 0-10
naming 10-18
word combination 18-24

17

When is the sensorimotor period of cognitive development?

birth to two

18

When does functional play begin?

1 year

19

When does imaginative play begin?

24-30 months

20

When are concrete and abstract thinking present?

concrete- elementary
abstract- adolescent

21

When is magical thinking seen?

preschool, toddler years

22

Cause of language + problem solving delay

retardation

23

Cause of language delay

hearing vs communication disorder

24

Cause of isolated problem solving delay

fine motor vs visual impairment

25

Discrepencies between what two domains put child at risk of learning disorder?

language and problem solving

26

When does sense of "self" appear

15 months

27

When does parallel play occur? when does sharing emerge?

2- parallel
3- sharing

28

Maternal risk factors for CP (2)

multiple gestation
PTL

29

Prenatal risk factors for CP (3)

IUGR
malformations
infection

30

Perinatal risk factors for CP (3)

prolonged/ traumatic delivery
low Apgars
early or late delivery

31

Four postnatal risk factors for CP

hypoxia/ischemia
IVH
trauma
kernicterus

32

CP involving lower extremities

spastic diplegia

33

CP involving unilateral extremities

spastic hemiplegia

34

CP involving all four limbs

spastic quadriplegia

35

CP causing athetoid movements + cause

Extrapyramidal (nonspastic) CP
kernicterus vs hypoxia/ischemia

36

"scissoring" is seen in which CP type?

spastic diplegia

37

Mental retardation must be manifested before ____

18

38

mild, mod, severe, profound IQ

mild: below 70
moderate: below 55
severe: below 40
profound: below 25

39

Acquired insults that may cause MR (3)

infection
head trauma
near drowning

40

Prototypical Pervasive developmental disorder

Autism

41

PDD must effect ___________

multiple areas of development

42

Autism is common in what age and sex?

boys below three

43

ADHD is more common in what sex?
What is a risk factor?

male; family history (30-50% have first degree relative)

44

ADHD must onset before age _____ in _____ settings

7; multiple settings

45

Three key symptoms of ADHD

-hyperactivity
-inattention
-impulsivity

46

Stimulants increase levels of __________ in ADHD treatment.

NE, DOPA

47

DOC for ADHD in patients with tics

clonidine

48

Effect of stimulants on stature

decrease growth velocity but not ultimate stature

49

Transient tics occur in ______% of kids treated with stimulants

9%

50

80% of deafness is genetic and has what inheritance pattern?

AR

51

Three labs to order in case of deafness

-genetic eval
-creatinine level
-viral serologies

52

Primary cause of blindness worldwide

trachoma infection

53

Feeling someones face to form an image of them is called?

haptic perception

54

Colic definition

more than 3 hours of crying at least 3 days a week

55

When does colic usually resolve?

3-4 months

56

Enuresis classification

nocturnal vs diurnal
primary vs secondary

57

% of kids wetting the bed at 4,5,6

4: 30%
5: 15%
6: 10%

58

Gene assc with nocturnal enuresis

chromosome 13, paternal

59

Three etiologic factors/organic causes of enuresis

-UTI
-DM
-Child Abuse

60

How long must alarm be used to treat bed wetting?

3-5 months

61

Two drugs for encopresis

DDAVP
TCAS (imipramine)

62

Risk assc with use of imipramine

cardiac dysrhythmia

63

When do most infants begin sleeping through the night?

after 3 months

64

Trained night waking occurs when?

4-8 months, kid requires parental intervention

65

Nightmares occur during ____ sleep.
Night terrors occur during _____ sleep.

Nightmares: REM (recall)
Night Terrors: N4 (no recall)

66

Major cause of eating troubles in toddlers

power struggles

67

Temper tantrum age groups

1-3 years

68

What kids are more likely to have tantrums

poor fine motor skills/ language delay

69

When does breath holding occur?

6-18 months

70

Cyanotic spells:
provoked or unprovoked?

Pallid spells?

cyanotic: provoked
pallid: unexpected

71

What has been shown to help some patients with apneic spells?

iron

72

Range of normal bowel control?
bladder?

16-48 months bowel
18-69 bladder

73

Pre-reqs for potty training

-understand words
-prefer dry
-recognize bladder fullness