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Flashcards in BRS- Gastro Deck (144)
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1

Percent of diet comprised of carbs? proteins?

carbs: 50%
protein: less than 30% (2.2g/kg in baby, 0.8 in adults)

2

What are micronutrients

vitamins and trace minerals

3

Vitamin deficiency assc with night blindness and dry cornea

vitamin A

4

Vitamin deficiency that leads to low phosphate levels

vitamin D

5

Vitamin deficiency that leads to poor wound healing, immunodeficiency, skin lesions

zinc

6

Vitamin deficiency that leads to dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia

niacin (pellagra)

7

Vitamin deficiency that leads to edema, bleeding gums, poor wound healing

Vitamin C (scurvy)

8

Describe features of Beriberi + what vitamin deficiency causes it?

cardiac failure
peripheral neuropathy
wernickes

B1, thiamine

9

Vitamin deficiency that causes dermatitis, glossitis, microcytic anemia, peripheral neuritis

B6, pyridoxine

10

B12 (aka ____) causes ____ anemia, elevated _____ levels, and ______sx.

cobalamin
macrocytic
methylmalonic acid
neuro

11

Protein deficiency is called ______. Total calorie deficency causes _____.

protein: kawashiorkor
total: marasmus

12

Kwashiorkor distinct symptoms (3)

hair loss
abnormal skin pigmentation
abdominal swelling

13

Three general symptoms of malabsorption

-diarrhea
-FTT
-abdominal distention

14

Test for carbohydrate malabsorption

-clinitest (tests for reducing sugars)
-pH below 5.6 (bacteria turn sugars to acid)

15

Three causes of protein malabsorption

-congenital enterokinase deficiency
-protein losing enteropathy
-inflammatory disorders

16

Test for protein malabsorption

stool levels of a1-antitrypsin
serum levels of albumin

17

Causes of fat malabsorption

-exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (CF, pancreatitis, schwachman diamond syndrome)
-intestinal mucosal atrophy
-bile acid deficiency
-abetalipoproteinemia

18

Cause of fat malabsorption assc with acanthocytes on peripheral smear

abetalipoproteinemia

19

Schawchman Diamond Syndrome:
-inheritance pattern
-labs
-symptoms

-AR
-neutropenia vs pancytopenia
-FTT, fat malabosorption (PI)

20

Frequency of protein intolerance in children + most common source of reactions

8%, cows milk

21

2 possible manifestations of protein intolerance

enteropathy (progressive diarrhea)
enterocolitis (acute diarrhea + rectal bleeding)

22

Protein intolerance prognosis

usually transitory and resolves within 1-2 years
acute symptoms resolve 1-2 weeks after withdrawl of stimulus

23

How common is celiac disease in the US?
Most common age of onset?

1/250
6 months- 2 years

24

Biopsy location + findings in celiac disease

small bowel
(flat villi, deep crypts, vacuolated epi with lymphocytes)

25

Antibodies assc with celiacs

IgA endomysial
serum tissue transglutaminase
antigliadin IgG

26

Celiacs long term consequences

growth failure + delayed sexual maturity

27

Causes of small bowel syndrome

-congential lesions (gastroschisis, volvulus, atresia)
-post op for nec. enterocolitis
-chrons, tumors, radiation

28

If distal small bowel is missing in SBS, ______ are not reabsorbed

B12, bile acids

29

Treatment for SBS

-TPN
-small bowel transplant with life threatening rxn to TPN

30

Complications assc with TPN:

-TPN cholestasis
-gallstones
-renal stones
-baterial overgrowth
-secretory diarrhea