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Flashcards in Mega Review Deck (153):
1

Apgar scores- classify scores 0-9

0-4: poor
5-7: fair
8-10: good

2

What is a +2 rating for pulse? grimace?

pulse: 100+
grimace: cough +2; grimace +1

3

Hemangioma in baby is what type?

strawberry, capillary

4

What hemangioma type causes stridor?

supraglottic

5

Buzzword for mongolian spot

"sharply demarcated"

6

Oval bald spot on infant is called?

nevus sebaceous
remove in adolescence, risk malignancy

7

"Milk bumps" on nose are termed?

milia

8

Nerve roots effected by Erbs? Klumpkes?

Erbs: C5-6
Klumpkes: C8, T1

9

Which brachial plexus injury is assc with phrenic palsy?

Erbs (C4)

10

Which brachial plexus injury is assc with Horners?

Klumpkes

11

First test in respiratory distress

CXR

12

"Big three" conditions screened for in newborns

CHT, PKU, galactosemia

13

Galactosemia + PKU inheritance patterns

AR

14

Cutaneous findings assc with PKU

fair hair and skin + blue eyes

15

Galactosemia findings

-jaundice
-hypoglycemia
-cataracts

16

Two physical exam findings assc with CHT

umbilical hernia
large fontanel

17

Preterm baby with resp difficulty=
Term=

Preterm- RDS
Term- TTN

18

Meconium aspiration causes _____

chemical pneumonitis

19

In addition to lung related causes of RD, what other systems may be involved?

intracranial process
metabolic disease
cardiac disease

20

In addition to C/S, what puts baby at risk of TTN?

rapid descent

21

Cephalohematoma= blood in what area?

subperiosteal, doesnt cross sutures

22

When should fontanels close?

anterior: 9-18 months
posterior: 4-5 months

23

Lens opacity on PE=

cataracts

24

What is the CHARGE assc?

Coloboma
Heart Defects
Atresia, choanal
Renal Defect
GU
Ear Deformity

25

Gastroschisis vs Omphalocele:
which is midline?

omhalocele= midline
gastro= lateral

26

First two tests in case of ambiguous genitalia

17 OH prog
Karyotype

27

When does umbilical hernia spontaneously close?

5 years

28

When does physiologic jaundice peak and resolve?

peak-3 days
resolve- 1 week

29

Values assc with physiologic jaundice

less than 13/2

30

Differential diagnosis of direct hyperbili

TORCH
biliary atresia
hepatitis

31

Rate of bili rise assc with kernicterus?
Total bili assc with kernicterus?

rate greater than 0.5/hr
total greater than 25

32

When should iron supplementation start in breast fed babies?

6 months, can be with cereal

33

Calories in formula

20 cal/oz

34

Describe bone age in constitutional vs familial short stature

constitutional-bone age = height age, room left
familial- bone age = chrono age

35

Which patients have short parents:
constitutional or familial short stature

familial

36

Normal growth velocity

4 cm/ year

37

Common cause of abrupt falling of growth curve

hypothyroid

38

Most newborn reflexes disappear by when?

4-6 months, except babinski= 18

39

Which way does baby roll first?

back 4 months --> stomach 5 months

40

When is social smile seen?

4-8 weeks

41

How many cubes should be stacked at 15,18,24 months?

15-3
18-4
24-7

42

When should all potty training be complete?

5 years

43

Renal threshold for gluc spilling

180-200

44

Diabetes insipidus urine finding

low specific gravity, less than or equal to 1

45

Diurnal enuresis may be caused by?

anatomic lesion

46

Most effecient test to order in case of enuresis

U/A

47

DOC in noctural enuresis

DDAVP

48

When are MMR effects seen?

1-2 weeks later

49

Treatment of neonatal sepsis? meningitis?

sepsis- amp & gent
meningitis- amp & cefotaxime

50

Most common cause sepsis older than 2 months?

strep pneumo

51

Cephalosporin contraindicated before 2 months?

ceftriaxone

52

When to use steroids in meningitis?

prevents deafness in H flu meningitis

53

Prophylaxis for nmen/hflu?

rifampin for close contacts

54

Seasonal encephalitis causes

arbo,entero viruses

55

MC sporadic cause of encephalitis

HSV

56

Osteomyelitis testing:

xray --> MRI --> culture

57

#1 cause osteo in all patients

staph aureus

58

When is patient at risk of pseudomonas osteomyelitis

after sneaker puncture

59

Gold standard for diagnosis in joint disease

arthrocentesis

60

Duration of pertussis

8 or more weeks

61

All pregnant moms get what vaccine?

Tdap

62

What abx decreases duration of illness in pertussis

erythromycin

63

Measles: aka

rubeola

64

Roseola distinguishing factors

rash AFTER fever

65

Rubella distinguishing factors

low grade fever
3 day duration
posterior lymphadenopathy

66

Lacy reticular rash=
evanescent rash=
bullet rah=

lacy reticular= fifths disease
evanescent= RF
Bullet= erythma chronicum migrans (lyme)

67

Lyme vs RMSF- who gets doxy

lyme; all over 8 doxy, rest amoxicillin
RMSF: all get doxy

68

CSD treatment

azithromycin

69

Antibiotic classically assc with rash in mono

ampicillin

70

Antidote for acetaminophen tox

nacetylcysteine (mucomist)

71

Aspirin findings

metabolic acidosis

72

Treatment for CO poisoning

hyperbaric O2

73

Toxicity assc with hemorrhagic GE + antidote

iron, deferoxime

74

Lead antidotes

EDTA, succimer at 45 or higher

75

Organophosphate antidote

atropine +/- 2PAM

76

Leading cause of death assc with ingestions

TCAs- seizures, arrythmia

77

Most common cause of conjunctivits at 24 hours or less

chemical

78

When is strabismus normal?

up to 4 months

79

How is amblyopia treated? What is it called?

lazy eye, patch

80

Screening test for lead, confirmatory?

screening= capillary
confirmatory = venous

81

MC complication of AOM

meningitis

82

Most common "resistant" bug

m cat

83

Gold standard for strep dx

throat culture

84

FBA finding on CXR

hyperinflation

85

Treatment never to be used alone in asthma

LABA

86

Define intermittent asthma

less than 2 days per week, 2 nights per month

87

Treatment of intermittent asthma

albuterol PRN

88

Chromosome assc with CF

chromosome 7

89

Most common cause of death in infants + most common time of year

SIDS, most common in winter, common at 2-3 months

90

Grade murmur that may be innocent

I-II

91

Cyanotic heart lesions

5 T's + Pulm stenosis

92

TOF murmur

loud single S2

93

When does VSD usually close?

by one year esp if muscular

94

Tricuspid atresia murmur

single S2, pansystolic murmur

95

Egg on a string=

TGA

96

Snowman=

TAPVR

97

Five major criteria assc with RF

JONES
-joints
-carditis
-nodules
-erythema marginatum (evanescent)
s-sydenhams

98

Requirements for RF dx

2 major
1 major + 2 minor
or just sydenhams

99

Common cause iatrogenic HTN in newborns

umbilical catheter

100

MCC diarrheal illness

norovirus

101

In which two diarrheal illnesses are abx CI?

E coli- increased risk HUS
salmonella- increased length carrier state

102

Treatment for shigella

TMPSMX

103

Treatment for campylobacter

e-mycin

104

Treatment for Giardia

metronidazole

105

Microcolon v megacolon, which= hirschsprungs?

micro= meconium ileus
mega= hirschsprungs

106

Population with highest rate of pyloric stenosis

first born males

107

Lab findings assc with pyloric stenosis

hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis
**correct this before surgery, surgery is nonemergent

108

Test of choice for pyloric stenosis

U/S

109

CXR finding assc with NEC

pneumatosis intestinalis

110

Apt test looks for?

swallowed maternal blood in neonate

111

MCC hematochezia in baby?

anal fissure

112

UC vs chrons: which= fistula

Chrons

113

Alports inheritance pattern

XD

114

C3 or C4 which is decreased in PSGN

C3

115

Nephrotic syndrome places patients at risk of what secondary condition?

peritonitis

116

When do males more commonly than females have UTI ?

before one year

117

Who is worked up for UTI cause?

females under 3
males
first febrile under 2

118

Workup for UTI cause?

renal US

119

Gold standard for UTI diagnosis

urine culture

120

In-toeing + neutral heel=

metatarsus adductus

121

In-toeing + inward heel=

talipes equinovarus
(club foot)

122

Knee position in tibial torsion vs femoral anteversion

normal knee- tibial torsion
inward knee- femoral anteversion

123

SCFE should prompt what testing?

TSH, FSH, LH

124

Population most commonly seen with developmental hip dysplasia

breech girls

125

Swelling at tibial tubercle

osgood schlatter

126

Most common bone tumor

osteosarcoma

127

Osteosarcoma is increased in frequency with

blateral Rb

128

Sunburst appearance = ______, onion skin= _____

suburst= osteo
onion skin= ewings

129

Allergic rhinitis is _____ mediated

IgE

130

When do symptoms begin in Brutons

6-12 months, Recurrent sinopulmonary infection

131

Type one pauciarticular JIA:
marker + sex

female
ANA

132

Type two pauciarticular JIA
marker + sex

male
HLA B27

133

Assc with Type II pauciarticular JIA

HLAB27= ankylosing spondylitis

134

Systemic JIA=

fever, rash, joints

135

Neonatal lupus causes

heart block

136

CRASH + burn, how many are required?

fever +4/5

137

Complications of HSP

-intussusception
-arthritis
-encephalopathy

138

All HSP patients need

hospital admission

139

Hereditary spherocytosis
-test
-inhertiance pattern
-assc

osmotic fragility
AD
gallstones

140

MC enzyme assc anemia + inheritance pattern

G6PD, XR

141

When does treatment occur in ITP?

when symptomatic---> give IVG, steroids

142

Inheritance pattern VWD

AD

143

VWD lab

prolonged PTT

144

Where does ALL relapse? (2)

CNS + testis

145

EEG pattern + tx assc with Infantile Spasms

hypsarrythmia, ACTH

146

EEG pattern + tx assc with absence seizures?

aka?

3 Hx spike and wave
ethosuximide
petit mal

147

Mucopolysaccharidoses inheritance

All AR except Hunter= XR

148

Werdnig Hoffman
inheritance pattern
gene

SMN
AR

149

Symptoms SMA

pediatric ALS sx

150

Two types SMA

I-infantile
III-adolescent

worse with younger onset

151

Treatment of GBS

supportive
plasmapheresis
IVIG

152

First sign of puberty in males?
females?

males- testicular enlargement
females- breast buds

153

Normal weirdness during puberty

assymetry
gynecomastia
irregular menses